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Restoration-page 10 






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"Where the summer sun spends the winter" 
was the boast made by early settlers of 
Utah's 82-mile-long semi-tropical belt which, 
because of its climate, they affectionately 
called "Dixie." Brigham Young hurried to 
join them, building his winter home in the 
heart of this sun-drenched land, in St. George. 
Bloomington, just a few minutes south on 
the new freeway, is Utah's first modern 
year-around resort community — where 
weary northerners can trade in snow 
shovels for golf clubs throughout the 
bitterest winter months. 

Now available for purchase is a variety of 
exclusive Bloomington home sites: on the 
river, around the fabulous new 18-hole golf 
course (ready for play this spring), small 
sites convenient for town houses, sprawling 
estate sites spacious enough for swimming 
pools, corrals and stables. 
Owned and developed by: Johnson Land Company 

Exclusive sales agent: 


610 East South Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102 
165 North 100 East, St. George, Utah 84770 
Phone 801 322-1211 

Cover Note 

The Nauvoo Temple — upper left, as it was 
in original glory — as painted by Steven T. 
Baird; the Nauvoo Temple ruins, lower, a 
colored rendition of a drawing by Fredrick 
Piercy, mid-nineteenth century artist; and 
upper right, the Nauvoo Temple block as 
it is to be reconstructed. See page 10, 
"Nauvoo Temple Restoration" by Jay M. 

October 1968 







The Voice of the Church 

October 1968 

Volume 71, Number 10 

Special Features 

Editor's Page: Some Personal Notes, President David 0. McKay 

Liquor by the Drink, Gordon B. Hinckley 

And They Will Find Him There, M. Taylor Abegg 

Nauvoo Temple Restoration, Jay M. Todd 

Drugs: Their Use and Abuse, Dr. Lowell L. Bennion 

Lion House Social Center Reopens, Eleanor Knowles 

The Long Hot Summer of 1912 (Part 3): Return of Mountain Men, 

Karl E. Young 

Elder William J. Critchlow, Jr., 1892-1968 

The Challenge of the Single Years, Maurine D. Keeler 

Longtime Era Employee Dies 

A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 5, A Unique Document 
(continued), Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Regular Features 

Lest We Forget: ZCMI, America's First Department Store, Albert L. 
Zobell, Jr. 

Era Asks About the Church Historian's Office 

Today's Family: Your Very Own Vote, Florence B. Pinnock 

Genealogy: English Probate Jurisdictions 

The Presiding Bishopric's Page: The Presiding Bishop Speaks to 
Youth About Honesty, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

The LDS Scene 

Buffs and Rebuffs 

The Church Moves On 

These Times: The Racial Revolution in America, Dr. G. Homer Durham 

End of an Era 

77, 79 The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 

Era of Youth 

41-56 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 


71, 81 Poetry 

David O. McKay and Richard L. Evans. Editors; Doyle L. Green. Managing Editor: Albert L. Zobell. Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Jay M. Todd. 
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes. Editorial Associates; Florence B. Pinnock, Today's Family Editor; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon. 
Era of Youth Associate Editor: Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris. Jr.. Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L. Payne, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith. Jr.. General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager: Verl F. Scott. Business Manager; A, Glen Snarr. Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith. Advertising Representatives. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1968, and published by the 

Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price. $3.00 a year, in advance; 

multiple subscriptions, 2 years. $5-75: 3 years. $8.25; each succeeding year. $2,50 a year added to the three-year price; 35C single copy, except for 

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Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2. 1918. 

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Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums. Mutual Improvement Associations. Home Teaching Committee. Music Committee, Church Scl >l 

System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints. The Improvement rJr.i. 79 South State. Salt Lake City, Gtah 841 It 

The Editor's Page 

^Ulllfc/ JloIoUIIcLL 1 \IUlfc/o 

To Declare the Restoration of the Gospel 

Some 85 years ago it was customary for missionaries 
to be publicly called from the rostrum of the Salt 
Lake Tabernacle at general conference. One day my 
father was numbered among those called to go to the 
British Mission to preach the gospel. 

When he came home from Salt Lake City just after 
receiving the call, his oldest brother came in and said, 
"David, you cannot go on that mission. You cannot 
leave Jennette [my mother] under the present 

There was a promise of an increase in the family, 
which was why he said, "You must not go." 

As he was going out the door to return to his own 
home, Father turned to Mother and said, "You heard 
what my brother advised. What shall we do?" 

She answered, "Are you in God's stead? You are 
called to go on a mission. You go! The Lord will take 
care of me and our children." 

So Father left for his mission to Scotland on April 
19, 1881. Ten days later, a little girl was born into 
our home, the sixth child in the family. The baby 
was over two years old before Father ever saw her. 

It may well be asked: "Why does the Church send 
out missionaries?" 

The answer may be given specifically: "To declare 
the restoration of the gospel of Jesus Christ." Restora- 
tion of the gospel of Jesus Christ implies that there 
was an apostasy from the original teachings and 
organization as proclaimed and established by Christ 
and the early apostles. 

We testify that there was indeed such an apostasy. 
We testify that the Church was restored anew through 
the great Prophet of the latter days, Joseph Smith, 
and that the Church continues today with all the 
strength of that authority. 


"Man's Extremity Is God's Opportunity' 

Many years ago Elder James McMurrin had to fill 
an appointment in Falkirk, Scotland, on a Sunday 
evening. He was in Burntisland on Saturday night 
and had enough money to pay his boat ride across 
the Leith Walk to Edinburgh. When that was spent, 
he was penniless. And the only way he could get 
from Edinburgh to Falkirk was by train. 

That Sunday he had an appointment with the 
branch in Edinburgh from ten to twelve. When the 
members asked him to go to lunch, he said, "No, 
thank you, I have an appointment in Falkirk, and I 
must take the train at one o'clock." 

Improvement Era 

By President David O. McKay 

One by one the Saints bade him good-bye, all but sider the fact that the gatekeeper was a Scotsman, 

Brother Robertson, the branch president, who said, who would never do that. ) It didn't happen. 

"If ye canna go hame with me, I'll gae ye Scotch What did happen? Brother Robertson had just 

convoy," and together they walked across Princess returned to the steps leading up to Princess Street 

Street down to Waverly Station, crossing under the when the thought came to him, "I wonder if Brother 

glass-covered canopy to the gate from which the train McMurrin has enough money?" Quickly retracing his 

was to leave. steps, he walked across the station, pulled from his 

The only possible way that Brother McMurrin pocket a two and sixpence, and said, "Here, Brother 

could keep his appointment in Falkirk that night was McMurrin, perhaps you need this." 

to get on that train. He had faith that the Lord "Thank you, Brother Robertson, I need that to get 

would open the way. He did not ask anyone for a my ticket." 

shilling, nor for a sixpence, nor for twopence, nor for Man's extremity is God's opportunity! 

two and six. You young people in the Church will perhaps also 

As the time approached, Brother Robertson said, come against a wall. Sometimes it may seem to be 
"Well, Brother McMurrin, it is time for you to get your across your path: you cannot overcome it; you can- 
ticket, so I will say good-bye." not get through it; you cannot see over it. But you 

"Good-bye, Brother Robertson," and Brother Me- can walk to that wall, having faith that God will help 

Murrin was left alone. you, and he will do so, if you will walk just as far as 

"Father [I will give you Elder McMurrin's words as you can by yourself in the performance of your duty. 

he gave them to me, for I was serving in the mission No matter what your duty is, or how difficult it 

field at that time too]— I have come just as far as I can may be, you must do it: walk the distance and then say 

in fulfilling my duty. Open up the way that I may get in all sincerity and faidi, "Father, help me. Open up 

on this train and go to Falkirk," Brother McMurrin the way for me. Give me strength to do my duty." 

prayed. Be assured that when you have done everything 

Then he thought that perhaps the gatekeeper would possible toward completing a task, he will open the 

let him go through. (I suppose that he did not con- way for you if your faith is strong enough. O 

October 1968 

Liquor by the Drink 

By Elder Gordon B. Hinckley 

Of the Council of the Twelve 

On November 5, Utah voters ivill go to the polls to vote for or against an alcoholic beverages 
act that, if passed, would authorize sale of liquor by the drink in the state. Because this proposal has gen- 
erated widespread interest, among present and former Utahns as well as members and friends of the 
Church who have interest in the state, and because the Church has taken an active stand against the 
proposal, the Era is printing the following talk* by Elder Gordon B. Hinckley, outlining the Church's 
position in regard to liquor by the drink. 

In view of the contest now going on in Utah over 
the issue of liquor by the drink, and the many ques- 
tions raised covering the position of the Church on 
this matter, it has been felt advisable to offer an 
explanation. I respond to the request to do so with 
the hope that I represent the views of the General 
Authorities of the Church, among whom I find con- 
sensus on this important question. 

First let me say that I know some of those who have 
been most prominent in promoting this proposed ex- 
tensive enlargement of liquor distribution. They are 
able men who have accomplished much in the busi- 
ness world. I think their motives in the present 
situation are understandable. They have presented 
their case effectively, and they have been listened 
to. I respect their ability in presenting their views. 

I hope they feel the same toward those who are 
opposed to them on this question. I hope they under- 

°Delivered over KSL Radio Sunday, June 23, 1968. 

stand the motives of their opponents who have no 
financial consideration behind their efforts. Their 
opponents include many non-Mormons and are led 
by a prominent citizen who is not a member of The 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We 
join with these honorable men and women in their 
service, our only objective being the building of a 
better society in Utah. 

As members of the Church, our immediate concern 
comes of our religious convictions. But behind those 
convictions lies a great wealth of experience and 
observation in many parts of the world. Behind those 
convictions also lies an appreciation for the distinc- 
tive atmosphere of Utah. We are not alone in expres- 
sions concerning this. Many thousands of tourists 
have commented on this while visiting here. 

We have no desire to divide the community. We 
have lived together many years as friends and asso- 
ciates. We have employed and been employed by 

Improvement Era 

'To have remained silent would have been inconsistent with our history 

one another. We have patronized one another. We 
have worked together in political campaigns. We 
have operated business together. We have joined 
hands in bringing to pass great civic improvements 
and great civic accomplishments. For instance, the 
Utah Symphony Orchestra recently toured the Pacific 
Coast states. This is not a Church organization, but 
the Church has given generously of its substance to 
assist the orchestra. It has made Church facilities 
available for its concerts. On its recent tour members 
of the Church joined with non-LDS people in pro- 
moting the orchestra's concerts in cities of the Pacific 

Obligation of Church 

This is but indicative of many efforts in which we 
have joined hands. But occasionally there are times 
when without bitterness or rancor we can expect 
honestly and energetically to disagree. The present 
instance is one of these. The Church has an obliga- 
tion from which it cannot shrink in matters affecting 
the morals of the people. The Church did not pro- 
pose this enlargement of liquor distribution. It can- 
not stand idly by while proponents of the measure go 
forward with their campaign. The mission of the 
Church is to preach peace and to cultivate unity, but 
never at the price of compromising moral questions. 

To have remained silent would have been incon- 
sistent with our history and with our doctrine. Op- 
position to the use of alcohol, stemming from what 
we regard as revelation, is well known. We have 
not sought to impose that doctrine on others. We 
respect the rights of others, but we feel that those 
rights have limitations, just as we expect ourselves to 
be subject to limitations. 

Governor Calvin L. Rampton of Utah has appro- 
priately said, "... I think the Church regards this as 
a moral issue and is within its right in trying to influ- 
ence people toward its position. I see no difference 
in the Church's stand on liquor by the drink than in 
the stand of most churches in opposition to por- 

As to the method of trying to persuade people to 
its position, let it be said first that the Church is as 
jealous as anyone in the nation over the preservation 
of the democratic processes of our government. The 
provisions for initiative petition written into the 
state's constitution were put there by men who were, 
for the most part, members of the Church. We have 
likewise proclaimed the divine inspiration underlying 
the writing of the Constitution of the United States. 
We have studiously avoided abrogating in any way 
the constitutional democratic process. The Church 
has not dictated. The Church has strongly urged that 
those exercising their prerogative as citizens be 
thoroughly informed on the implications of any legis- 
lation brought about by the direct method of initia- 
tive petition. That requires a reading of the complete 
and lengthy text. We commend both sides for pub- 
lishing this text and urge all to read it and not be 
satisfied to read only a synopsis drawn by its pro- 
ponents. We are confident that a careful reading of 
the text will make amply clear the reasons for the 
opponents' objections. 

Now, what are the moral considerations in this 
measure? May I mention several by number and 
treat each one briefly. 

Consideration of these becomes the basis for our 
joining hands with other citizens in the state- 
Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish— who are opposed to 
this measure. 

Moral, Not Political, Issue 

Those familiar with this contest recognize that it 
is not a political issue. It is a moral issue, with 
Democrats and Republicans on each side. 

Effect on Youth 

1. A greatly enlarged exposure of our youth to the 
acknowledged evils of alcohol. We are not so blind 
as to not realize that some youth in the state evidently 

October 1968 

and with our doctrine, 

are now able to get liquor. The buying of beer by 
young people has become a serious problem for police 
officers. But this affects relatively few. We are 
confident that thousands of our young people who 
have never been exposed to public drinking would be 
so exposed under this proposal. Why? you ask. Be- 
cause if this were to become law, bars would be 
established in public eating places all up and down 
the state. These bars would be numbered in the 
hundreds. While it would be illegal to sell to minors, 
a driver's license showing the customer to be over 
21 years of age would become prima facie evidence 
of eligibility to purchase. Grocers and others now 
having difficulties in determining ages in connection 
with the sale of beer could give an idea of the com- 
plexity of the enforcement of this provision. We have 
no doubt that our young people would be much more 
widely exposed to liquor drinking than they are at 
the present time. 

Furthermore, those who have traveled widely know 
that when you sit down at a table in a restaurant in 
any area where liquor is served by the drink, the first 
menu customarily handed you is the list of drinks, 
and the first solicitation concerns these. Our young 
people have not been exposed to this as they have 
eaten in restaurants in Utah. We are confident, and 
the statistics we have examined provide background 
for this confidence, that enactment of this bill into 
law would greatly add to the exposure of our youth. 
You ask, do you expect to shield them always? What 
about when they go in the army or travel? We reply 
that this will be soon enough, that by then they will 
have matured enough in character and developed 
sufficient self-discipline to handle such situations. 

Increased Consumption 

2. We have no doubt that the enactment of this 
proposal would eventually lead to increased consump- 
tion. This may not be immediate, but we are con- 
vinced that it would come. You cannot multiply 
the outlets and offer assurance of a profit on every 

drink sold without expecting increased promotion, 
subtle or otherwise, and consequent increased 

Traffic, Crime Problems 

3. We are confident that increased consumption 
will bring with it an increase of the train of evils 
associated with drinking. No one these days seriously 
argues the dangers of alcohol on the highways. Among 
the most alarming statistics in America are those 
concerned with the deaths of more than 50,000 people 
a year in automobile accidents. Safety critics are 
united in their judgment that at least 50 percent of 
these are the result of drinking. 

Now we do not believe for a minute that every- 
one who drinks is going to become a menace on the 
highway. But we are convinced that if you increase 
the overall consumption of alcohol, there will be an 
increase in the number of those who cannot handle it, 
with consequent increases in traffic problems. The 
same holds with crime generally. With recognition 
of the fact that 70 percent of serious crime in some 
areas is associated with alcohol, can we afford to do 
anything that might increase the crime rate? 

The same holds true with reference to other social 
problems— alcoholism, broken homes, employment 
difficulties, neglected families. 

Those who propose this measure indicate that we 
already have large numbers of these problems. We 
acknowledge this fact and deplore it earnestly, but 
hasten to point out that the way to improve it is not 
by enlarging one of the conditions which caused it. 

The Church is not without experience in dealing 
with social problems. With a worldwide member- 
ship, it knows something of the tragedies that result 
from broken homes, crime sprees, automobile fatali- 
ties, breadwinners who cannot qualify for employ- 
ment, and the host of other evils that afflict our society 
and that are aggravated by alcohol. 

4. We are concerned with an associated matter, 
also moral in its implications. That is, that enact- 

Improvement Era 

It is morally wrong to benefit the few at the expense of the many. 

ment of this proposed bill would benefit most a rela- 
tively few who would be given licenses, and would 
add burdens of enforcement and care 'of social 
problems on the many. Our police forces already are 
overburdened, and we are convinced that these bur- 
dens would increase substantially with a marked 
increase in the number of liquor outlets and an eas- 
ing of liquor procurement. 

Little, If Any, Added Revenue 

Much has been spoken of the generating of added 
revenues to cover this enforcement. Those who have 
examined the bill closely recognize that, in effect, the 
net revenue gained would be extremely small, if any. 
Experience of other states, among which we might 
name California, indicates that for every dollar of 
liquor-generated tax revenues, there are at least three 
to five dollars of liquor-caused public expense. It is 
morally wrong to benefit the few at the expense of 
the many. 

Image of State 

5. Finally, we think the majority of the people who 
live in Utah like what they have here. We are proud 
of the great heritage that has come from dedicated 
and industrious forebears who laid the foundations of 
the good things we enjoy here. We recognize the need 
for more industry and increased payrolls. We can- 
not agree that liquor by the drink is the panacea for 
our economic ills. We know that some industries 
have come here because of the sobriety of our people. 

We are likewise interested in tourism. We have had 
vast experience with this. One million eight hundred 
thousand people visited Temple Square last year. They 
came from every state in the union. They came from 
many foreign lands. They did not come because of al- 
cohol or its absence. This was not a consideration in 
their visits. They came to see and enjoy things that 
have been seen and enjoyed by millions before them 
who have gone back with enthusiastic stories of that 

which they experienced in this area. 

We agree wholeheartedly on the desirability of 
bringing increased industry and tourist travel to Utah. 
But we see no reason to tarnish the image of this great 
state in doing this. The preservation of a remarkable 
heritage and the enlargement of that heritage for 
those who follow are with us moral considerations. 
Our desire is to enlarge that spirit and not to detract 
from it and thereby take from this area that unique 
flavor and atmosphere so often commented upon ap- 
preciably by thousands upon thousands of those who 
come to visit us from many parts of the world. 

Nor is such comment limited to tourists. Thousands 
of residents, non-Mormon in religious persuasion, 
appreciate the unique qualities of living and rearing 
families in Utah. 

Prophet's Statement 

These are but a few of the many considerations, all 
of them moral in their implications, underlying our 
determined opposition to this measure. We stand 
united behind the President of the Church, a man 
ripe in years, mature in judgment, inspired in fore- 
sight, who has said, "I urge members of the Church 
throughout the state, and all citizens interested in 
safeguarding youth and avoiding the train of evils 
associated with alcohol, to take a stand against the 
proposal for liquor by the drink." 

We hope that we can honestly differ with our 
friends who are promoting this enlargement of liquor 
availability. We hope we can do so without animosity 
or bitterness. Our disagreements are honest. Our 
convictions are firm. Their roots are anchored in 
our religion. But their branches stand in the sunlight 
of fact. We join others not of our faith in the belief 
that there is a better way to correct recognized prob- 
lems than through the all-or-nothing method now 
under consideration. 

We invite our fellow citizens of both sides to join 
with us in this effort to build our beloved Utah, and 
for this I pray in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen. 

October 1968 

And They Will Find Him There 

By M. Taylor Abegg 

M. Taylor Abegg, president of the Albuquerque 
(New Mexico) Stake, is supervisor of explosives 
research at the Sandia Laboratory for the 
Atomic Energy Commission, and is the father 
of eight children. 

• Much has been spoken and 
written about reverence and how 
to improve it. Indeed, the quality 
of any meeting is determined in 
large measure by the quality of 
the reverence displayed. Non- 
member visitors who attend 
meetings of the Church some- 
times seem shocked at what they 
regard as irreverence. 

We tend to rationalize this 
irreverence as a natural outgrowth 
of the gregarious Mormon spirit, 
and our back-slapping, some- 
times noisy greetings as typical 
interactions acceptable under 
the circumstances. Even the 
unusually high noise level in 
many of our meetings has in 
large measure been taken for 
granted as the price we pay for 
bringing our children to church. 

Perhaps the time has come to 
question the validity of such 

The need for reverence in our 
services has been so amply at- 
tested over the years that no 
additional justification need be 
attempted here. Suffice it to say 
that worship and reverence are 
so interwoven, they are insepa- 
rable. One without the other is 
meaningless, as sight without 
light or music without sound. It 
follows logically that the ab- 
sence of reverence in our meet- 
ings seriously limits the basic ob- 
jectives involved, and members 
of the Church may be deprived 
of strength and spiritual growth 
otherwise available to them. 

The usual tack for the improve- 

ment of reverence in our services 
is to improve the setting. This 
involves maintaining order on 
the stand, encouraging mothers 
to use the cry room (without 
offense, if possible), using greet- 
ers who by their manner exempli- 
fy reverence, getting better 
speakers, selecting appropriate 
prelude and postlude music, and 
a wise selection of hymns. All 
of these are worthy and worth- 
while endeavors, and significant 
improvements can result if they 
are properly administered. 

Ultimately, however, worship 
and reverence are personal at- 
tributes; in a very real sense they 
are a measure of the state of 
mind of the individual. Does it 
not, therefore, seem appropriate 
to inquire into those forces and 
influences that adversely as well 
as favorably affect one's state of 
mind while attending service? 
Apparently there are those who 
believe that the mere process of 
passing through the chapel en- 
trance is sufficient to settle, for 
example, a distraught and fet- 
tered mind. Not so. While a 
calming influence certainly 
awaits within, resentment, anger, 
and contention are not so easily 
or quickly dispelled. Silence may 
be an outward manifestation of 
reverence, and at times it may be 
a necessary condition for it, but 
in no sense can it be considered 
sufficient if members of the 
audience are sitting in silent 

What, then, are those condi- 
tions that most directly affect 
one's state of mind and therefore 
his ability to worship in a given 
meeting? It might be well to re- 
call that it is possible to experi- 
ence a lovely, peaceful Sabbath 
spirit, only to have this tran- 
quility totally disrupted at the 
last minute during the getting- 
ready period. 

Improvement Era 

How many times, for example, 
have children heard a frightful 
shout from one of the parents 
that it's almost time for sacra- 
ment meeting, and they will all 
have to hurry to get there on 
time? This type of announce- 
ment all too frequently pro- 
duces adverse results. For the 
youngsters playing, this means 
they must quickly abandon their 
friends, their playthings, and 
their fun, and it's only natural for 
them to regard this as an intru- 
sion into their private domains. 
For teen-age girls, who normally 
require hours to prepare them- 
selves, this is regarded as an 
overt threat against their social 
acceptability; and for boys of 
comparable age, a negative re- 
sponse is the rule, not the excep- 

Following this, confusion 
usually takes over in earnest, 
with interactions becoming in- 
creasingly abrasive and disrup- 
tive. Invariably little brother 
cannot find a shoe. An urgent 
plea for someone to assist is 
greeted with dead silence until 
a specific request is issued to a 
specific older brother or sister, 
who then finds it quite proper to 
inquire why all little brothers 
have to be so stupid, or why all 
little sisters can never learn to 
dress themselves. With time 
drawing shorter, the situation be- 
comes critical; and mother con- 
fronts her young son with the 
familiar question, "Why do you 
always get dressed before you 
get washed?" and then sends 
him back to start ail over. 

With time running out, a state 
of absolute emergency now 
exists, with parents and children 
rushing from one room to an- 
other and youngsters nearly in 
tears from confusion and frustra- 
tion. Control at this point can be 

"If we would improve our reverence, we should 
focus on the hour preceding the meeting...." 

maintained only by sheer force 
and volume. With only moments 
to go, the father, standing at the 
door, trumpets his final warning, 
"I'm leaving!" A final desperate 
surge carries the family through 
the door, shoes in hand, hair 
half-combed, and attire generally 
askew. They pile into the family 
conveyance, each mumbling his 
own brand of displeasure, resent- 
ment, and discontent, and head 
for the meeting, arriving phys- 
ically out of breath and men- 
tally out of sorts. One by one 
they file into the chapel to 
worship our Lord and Savior, 
Jesus Christ. 

Is true worship possible under 
such conditions? If not, neither is 
true reverence. A mind set awhirl 
by contention, anger, and confu- 
sion is not likely to be receptive 
or responsive to the Holy Spirit. 
Adults may be able to sit quietly 
under such circumstances, giving 
at least an outward appearance 
of reverence. Youngsters have 
a more difficult time of it. Their 
squirming, fidgeting, whining, 
and need for frequent trips to 
the rest room may be outward 
signs of inner turmoil, giving rise 
to the oft-heard remark that 
youngsters just can't weather a 
long meeting. 

This may or may not be true, 
depending on their state of 
mind, and the same argument 
applies equally to adults who by 
virtue of their maturity are able 
to conceal irreverence better. 
Recently a ward fast and testi- 
mony meeting, attended by both 
adults and youngsters, lasted 
over five hours, with scarcely a 
peep from anyone. How can this 

be? In this instance it was simply 
a matter of adults and young- 
sters alike being in tune with the 
spirit of the meeting. 

All of this suggests that if we 
would improve the quality of 
reverence in our meetings, we 
should focus our efforts on the 
hour preceding the meeting in 
order to establish a proper frame 
of mind. Think, if you will, of a 
parent with a smile on his face 
and love in his voice quietly tell- 
ing a youngster that the family is 
now getting ready for sacrament 
meeting, offering at the same 
time a pat of assurance and a 
helping hand. 

Visualize, if you will, a mother 
getting ready with a song in her 
heart and on her lips, which 
carries a spirit of peace and love 
throughout the home. Visualize 
teenagers ready in plenty of 
time, vying for the chance to 
assist with the baby, and help- 
ing younger brothers and sisters 
in love and affection. 

Consider, if you will, a father 
calling his family together in 
prayer, invoking the blessings of 
the Lord upon his family as they 
prepare to leave for meeting. 
Consider, if you will, a young 
lad whose heart may be touched 
for the first time with the knowl- 
edge that God is real. 

This family will reach the 
chapel in a relaxed and peaceful 
state, with their minds and 
hearts preconditioned in favor of 
things spiritual. They will file one 
by one into the chapel to wor- 
ship our Lord and Savior, Jesus 
Christ— and they will find him 
there. O 

October 1968 

Drawing of horizontal "angel" weather vane 
that was placed atop the Nauvoo Temple 

uvoo Temple Restoration 

By Jay M. Todd 

Editorial Associate 

• A partial restoration of the Nauvoo Temple, to be 
built on the original Illinois temple site, is projected 
by the Nauvoo Restoration, Incorporated ( NRI ) . The 
original temple, built about 122 years ago, was 
located at Nauvoo, Illinois, where the Church was 
headquartered from 1839-1846 on a large bend of the 
Mississippi River. NRI is a non-profit corporation 
sponsored by the Church for the development of part 
of the old city of Nauvoo. Dr. J. LeRoy Kimball 
serves as president and chairman of the board by 
appointment of the First Presidency. 

The temple was famed during the 1840's as "un- 
questionably one of the finest buildings in this 
country." It was the second temple built by the 
Church, preceded only by the Kirtland Temple, built 
during the Ohio period (1831-1837) of Church his- 
tory. The Illinois temple was the first temple used 
for sacred ordinance work, including baptism for the 
dead, endowments, sealings, and marriages. Its de- 
sign, its purpose, and the work performed therein bore 
the distinct stamp of revelation given to the Prophet 
Joseph Smith before his martyrdom in 1844. The 
temple itself was destroyed by fire in 1848, two years 
and a half after the Saints had begun their trek across 
the plains. 

The purpose of the restoration is to create a center 
where the story of the Church can be told to the 
millions of tourists and nearby residents who travel 
through the Midwest. Over 100,000 Latter-day Saints 
reside in the Mississippi Valley region. It is esti- 
mated that by 1974 nearly half a million visitors yearly 
will visit the Nauvoo center, 

Construction on the partial restoration of the Nau- 
voo Temple is expected to begin in 1970. A two-year 
construction period is anticipated. Preceding the 
restoration there will be an exhaustive program 
of archaeological and historical research, which will 
near completion the latter part of 1969. The 
archaeological work has already unearthed numerous 
artifacts, including portions of the wall that sur- 
rounded the original temple plot, part of the bricked 
basement floor, segments of the stone oxen statuary 
that sustained the baptismal font, workmen's tools, 
and many other related items. 

These artifacts (glass, nails, cornices, stonework, 
bolts, iron hinges, chisels and tools, among other 
things) demonstrate the remarkable workmanship 
of early Latter-dav Saint workmen, many of whom 

were converts from Europe who had begun streaming 
into Nauvoo by the early 1840's. The artifacts will be 
displayed in a museum and visitors' center to be 
located on the temple block. The information center 
will feature numerous displays, artwork, and rooms 
for the presentation of films designed to tell the 
temple story. 

Near the information center and inside the walled 
temple grounds will be appropriate statuary of the 
two martyrs, the Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother 
Hyrum, and of Brigham Young, president of the 
Council of the Twelve and successor to the Prophet 
Joseph Smith as head of the Church. Other statuary 
will represent scenes of the Nauvoo period. The 
temple block itself will be beautifully landscaped. 

The main exhibit, however, will be the restored 
portion of the Nauvoo Temple. The temple's foot- 
ings and floor will be built over the exact spot where 
once stood the original temple, and will follow the 
exact measurements of the original building. Indeed, 
some of the original stonework, including some of the 
original footings, will be used in the reconstruction. 
The brick basement floor will also contain some of 
the original basement bricks. Portions of the legs of 
the original 12 oxen that surrounded the font will 
be used in the font restoration. Nearby will be the 
temple well, which provided water for the font. 

The front facade of the temple is to be rebuilt to 
the original height of the upper pediment, so that 
tourists may ascend the stairway and obtain a glimpse 
of the view that so enchanted early-day Nauvoo 

The view, noted as "magnificent" and "beyond 
description," was described by one visitor, J. H. Buck- 
ingham: "The whole valley of the Mississippi for 
miles and miles lay exposed to view on the north 
and south, where the prairie lands of Illinois, and 
Iowa, and Missouri, were to be seen to the east 
and west, overlooking the few hills lying near to the 
shore in the latter state, and showing the tortuous 
course of the Des Moines River for some distance." 

The temple was more than an edifice built for a 
view, however. To the Latter-day Saints of the 
period, it represented both a memorial to the man 
who communed with heaven and a building whose 
design had been presented to the Prophet in vision. 
In response to the chief draftman's objection to the 
oval windows in the plans, the Prophet had replied: 

October 1968 


"I wish you to carry out my designs. I have seen in 
vision the splendid appearance of that building 
illuminated, and will have it built according to the 
pattern shown me." 

Although he was martyred before its completion 
and dedication in 1846, Joseph Smith directed the 
Nauvoo Temple's entire form and purpose. As early 
as August 31, 1840, the First Presidency had sent an 
address to the "Saints scattered abroad" noting that 
"the time has now come, when it is necessary to 
erect a house of prayer, a house of order, a house for 
worship of our God, where the ordinances can be 
attended to agreeably to His Divine Will, in this region 
of the country— to accomplish which, considerable 
exertion must be made, and means will be required— 
and as the work must be hastened in righteousness, 

it behooves the Saints to weigh the importance of 
these things." 

Indeed, from that time onward, nothing took such 
prominent position in the minds and exertions of those 
in and around Nauvoo as the building of the temple. 
To many visitors— and Saints— it seemed that the 
Prophet had only one overriding drive: the Nauvoo 
Temple. On January 19, 1841, the Lord promised the 
Prophet through revelation that "I will show unto my 
servant Joseph all things pertaining to this house, and 
the priesthood thereof, and the place whereon it 
shall be built. 

"And ye shall build it on the place where you have 
contemplated building it, for that is the spot which 
I have chosen for you to build it." (D&C 124:42-43.) 

The spot was the top of a prominent knoll in Nati- 


Improvement Era 

voo overlooking the majestic sweep of the Mississippi 
River less than a mile away. Two and a half months 
later, at the April 1841 general conference, the corner- 
stones of the temple were laid. Then the work began. 
Large companies of Saints were sent into Wisconsin's 
forest for lumber, and qnarriers took their tools to 
quarries in Nauvoo. 

By November 8, 1841, a temporary wooden font 
had been dedicated in the basement of the temple. 
Constructed of pine, it was oval-shaped and rested on 
the backs of 12 oxen, which had been carved from 
pine planks and glued together. About 30 feet east 
of the font was the well that supplied the baptismal 
water. On November 21, 1841, the first baptisms for 
the dead were performed in the temple. The ordi- 
nance had been instituted as early as September 1840, 

when several persons were baptized in the Mississippi 
River in behalf of their dead ancestors. 

The temple endowment also was first performed 
outside a temple, primarily as a result of the Prophet 
sensing his impending future: "There is something 
going to happen; I don't know what it is, but the 
Lord bids me to hasten and give you your endowment 
before the temple is finished." This was recorded by 
Elder Orson Hyde of the Council of the Twelve. The 
endowment took place in the Prophet's office on the 
upper floor in his new store near the Mississippi 
River, on May 4, 1842. The so-called "prayer meet- 
ings" continued to be held in the assembly room over 
the Prophet's store throughout 1842-44. The first 
known sealing of marriages was performed April 5, 
1841, a year previous. 

But the proper location for such ordinances was in 
the house of prayer, and nearly all of the Prophet's 
efforts were turned to the realization of that 
goal. By May 21, 1843, Sabbath services were held 
on planks within the temple, and that autumn the 
October general conference convened within the 
rising tiers of stonework. In the spring of 1844 a 
"penny fund" was sponsored by the women of the 
Church to purchase glass and nails. The British 
Saints saved extra coins and in time sent a donation to 
be used in the casting of a large bell for the tower. 

All Saints were encouraged time and again to in- 
crease their contributions, and those living near Nau- 
voo were to donate every tenth day to temple 
labor. "Ward captains" kept an account of every 
man's contributions. Some men were called on 
"temple missions" to labor full time. Their board was 
provided by local members, and their clothes were 
washed and mended by sisters participating in the 
project. The Prophet spent many days overseeing the 
work, joining stonemasons at the quarry, and lending 
an eager hand. His hands, however, were often full 
with matters surrounding the temple's design and 
finances. He often had to clear up bickering, mis- 
understandings, and erroneous notions, redirect 
efforts, and buoy up enthusiasm. His influence is 
particularly noticeable in several of the remaining 
draftsman's drawings pertaining to the temple. 

One drawing appeared on the Gustavus Hill's "Map 
of the City of Nauvoo" in mid-1842. It shows a square 
stone tower, a triangular front pediment, and moon- 
stones across the bottom, among other things. The 

October 1968 



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Total cost $ This must include 3 x /2% sales tax for Utah residents 

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Improvement Era 

"HE TEMPLE. HAUVQ0; ■ ■" H A ' 

First known drawing of the Nauvoo Temple 

Second temple drawing shows changes made. 

drawing is by William Weeks, draftsman for the 
Prophet. A later drawing shows changes apparently 
made by the Prophet in another of Week's drawings. 
This drawing shows the change from a square to an 
octagonal tower of half stone and half wood. The 
triangular front pediment still remains, and there are 
no star stones yet 

A third drawing by Weeks shows a rectangular 
pediment, with half-circle windows, an all-wood 
tower, and five-pointed star stones. The completed 
temple noted several changes even in these few factors 
under discussion: the upper pediment windows were 
square, not half-circle; the tower window shutters 
were altered in design; and there were numerous other 
minor changes. These drawings by Weeks show the 
progressive development of the architecture of the 
temple to its final form, and have changes probably 
suggested by the Prophet himself. Also among Week's 
papers is a drawing of the prone angel that later 
adorned the tower. In one hand was a book, probably 
representing the Book of Mormon, and in the other 
a trumpet to herald the news of the restoration. 

By the year 1844 the temple construction neared 
its top tiers. 

That year also saw the death of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith. As a result, all things in and around 
Nauvoo seemed to hang in suspension after the June 
27 martyrdom. But on July 8, 1844, it was resolved 

to stop construction on all other public buildings and 
concentrate on the temple. Work moved forward 
rapidly under the leadership of Brigham Young, who 
had said, "I would rather pay out every cent to build 
up this place and receive an endowment, even were I 
driven the next minute without anything to take 
with me." 

With this spirit— and the ever-increasing awareness 
that the Saints would soon be leaving Nauvoo— efforts 
redoubled. The Saints intended to complete the 
temple in order to receive their endowments, and then 
to leave the building as a witness of their faithfulness 
and as a memorial to the Prophet Joseph Smith. Hence, 
the next year saw the completion of the temple. The 
wooden baptismal font was replaced with a stone 
font. The capstone was laid May 24, 1845, and the 
stone masons rested from their labors. The interior, 
though not completed in the total elegance of today's 
temples, was plastered, carpeted, and curtained, and 
pictures were hung. All rooms may not have been 
in an equal state of completion, but the temple was 
essentially finished at the dedication on April 30 and 
May 1, 1846. Before then some of the attic rooms 
had already been dedicated, and from December 10, 
1845, to February 7, 1846, some 5,595 persons received 
their endowments, and some their sealings and 

A touching incident indicates the heartfelt desire 

October 1968 




< ..M i Mll~.iVi tut,,, ;■"" *'" ■' .k_ i ^ = a' *- ." "" — r? — Amu J il*T 

Third temple drawing shows the change to rectangular pediment. 

Artist's rendering of how the completed temple looked. 

of the Saints for the temple blessings. On February 3 
President Young met with leaders to plan the exodus 
from Nauvoo as well as from the persecutors who had 
burned well over one hundred homes of Saints residing 
outside Nauvoo and who continued to harass and 
threaten the Saints with destruction. The President 
spoke to the many Saints who had gathered, saying 
that the Church had been abundantly blessed for 
having built the temple, that other duties awaited 
them, and that he was going to set the example and 
be the first to leave and begin to load his wagons. 
Then he put on his overcoat and hat and left the 
building. After a short walk he looked back and saw 
that no one was following him. He immediately 
sensed the hunger of the Saints for spiritual bless- 
ings, and -he returned to the waiting throng and 
organized the work for endowments to be given to 
295 persons that day. Preceding this and during the 
long winter months, President Young and numerous 
other officiators had almost lived in the temple, staying 
for days on end, eating food sent to them and sleep- 
ing on available cots, as they tirelessly gave the Saints 
their endowments. 

After the Saints' departure in 1846, ruffians moved 
into Nauvoo, plundering and bullying their way 
against the weak opposition of the small band who 
had remained. The temple, whose west end bore the 
inscription "The House of the Lord . . . Ploliness to 

the Lord," was soon the quarters for the mob militia 
that had taken the town. In time, however, the 
Latter-day Saints left in charge of the temple again 
acquired custodianship of the building. 

On October 9, 1848, three men reportedly set fire to 
the temple. Accounts of the arsonists' labors made 
front-page news throughout the nation. The charred 
stones and remaining walls were blown down by a 
tornado in 1850, the temple site seemingly cleansed of 
the ravages perpetrated on it by the "mobocrats." 

But the spirit of Elijah that had taken deep root 
among the Saints could not be dimmed. Within four 
days of their arrival in Salt Lake City in 1847, Brig-, 
ham Young pointed to a spot and said, "Here we will 
build the temple of our God." Within 30 years, three 
other temples were also underway. The Prophet 
Joseph's early ordinance work had flowered into a 
concern that would never die. Indeed, the spirit of 
temple work has been described by prophets of many 
ages to be one of the all-consuming interests of the 
Lord's people in the latter days and during the 

This remarkable temple story and the truths asso- 
ciated with it are some of the reasons for the desire 
to return and restore a portion of the Nauvoo Temple 
on the slopes of the Mississippi. 

Certainly, such a message is worthy of a fitting 
memorial. o 


Improvement Era 


One of two things will happen—you'll either get sick, or you'll stay well. Life's twice the fun knowing that, either way, you must get paid. 

With Medical 
Costs Soaring, 

How Lucky 
Will You Be? 

People over 65 get the cash they 
need to help with Medicare 

# One of two things will happen to you. Either you'll 
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If you get sick or hurt, you face the problem of paying 
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Today, 9 out of 10 Americans no longer have enough 
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built up an extra savings account. 

October 1968 

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People are already cashing big refund checks under 
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The story of this remarkable "Money-Back" plan, and 
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***To get your free copy of the Gold Book, simply fill out 
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" — -^ I V 

By Dr. Lowell L. Bennion 




Dr. Lowell L. Bennion, associate dean of students at the 
University of Utah and a member of the planning committee 
of the Church's Youth Correlation Committee, has long been 
concerned with the drug problem as it affects students. 

• Our time has been called the age of the pill, Men 
have turned to drugs in every known age, but not 
on the scale they do today. Drug use plays a sig- 
nificant part in medical practice. It serves as the 
basis of big business. It is the individual's hope 
against pain and anguish. Young people in increasing 
numbers turn to drugs to satisfy their curiosity, to 
escape from a reality that is unpleasant or threatening, 
or in search of euphoria and nirvana. 

It is the purpose of this article to examine drug use 
and abuse, to explore the values and dangers involved 
in taking drugs, to understand why people turn to 
them, and to examine the results of such action. Since 
the author is neither a pharmacologist nor a medical 
doctor, this article will not deal with the technical- 
medical aspects of the subject but rather with the 
personal and social dimensions of the problem. 

Drugs as substances used "in the diagnosis, cure, 
mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man 
and animals" certainly have a legitimate place. How 
grateful man is for the Salk vaccine against polio, 
for a tetanus shot that prevents lockjaw, for pain- 
killing drugs that relieve some of the agony asso- 
ciated with cancer. Anyone who possesses a historical 
perspective or who has lived long upon the land can 
hardly be against all drug use. Drugs play a con- 
structive role whenever they serve a lifesaving or a 
life-building function. Many of us are alive today 
only because of them. 

Our concern is not with drug use but with drug 
abuse. By the latter is meant the unintelligent, 


Improvement Era 

inappropriate, or excessive use of a drug, which leads 
to the destruction of physical or mental health, the 
impairment of productive, creative living, the destruc- 
tion of human relations and of life itself. 

Drugs are not good or bad in and of themselves, 
but they become either one or the other as they build 
or destroy persons, as they promote or impede life. 
Opium, for instance, in its various derivatives, serves a 
useful purpose in the hands of a knowledgeable and 
conscientious physician, but it becomes an agonizing 
substance in the life of an addict. Some drugs, such as 
the antibiotics, have positive functions; others, such 
as tobacco, have minimal value and considerable ill 
effects. Each drug must be judged on its own merit 
as it is used under given circumstances by particular 

Drug abuse can take many forms. Any self- 
administered drug (one that has not been prescribed 
by a physician) is likely to lead to abuse, because it 
is usually taken in defiance, ignorance, or with a bias. 
Drugs are chemicals that affect the physiology of the 
body and the functioning of the mind. Without 
knowledge of biochemistry and mental process, it is 
hazardous to use drugs. Even the physician who 
prescribes drugs for himself runs the risk of being 
influenced by personal desire rather than by objective 
need. Persons in the medical profession who some- 
times begin treating themselves can become involved 
in drug abuse as much as any other segment of the 

Some forms of drug abuse have been with us for 

many centuries, but their serious and harmful effects 
have been scientifically verified only in recent years. 
Tobacco is now known to be a major contributing 
cause of cancer of the lung, throat, and larnyx. 
Emphysema and circulatory diseases are also its by- 
products. The destructive effect of alcohol on man's 
liver, brain, circulatory system, perception of space, 
and impulses— to say nothing of its consequences in 
his human relations— is no longer contested. 

In recent years other mind-altering drugs have been 
introduced or reintroduced, especially to the youth 
of the world, and in some circles they are competing 
with alcohol and tobacco for popularity. Among these 
are marijuana, LSD, methedrine ("speed"), and some 
70 other substances that have either a stimulating or 
depressing effect or both. More such drugs are cer- 
tain to be discovered or manufactured in the future. 

These drugs have a mixed reputation. Some users 
of the new and newly used mind-expanding drugs feel 
they offer new dimensions of self-understanding and 
provide the basis for nonpossessive love among per- 
sons; others, particularly some psychiatrists who have 
treated drug-using patients, find them particularly 
destructive to health and life. This writer knows of 
no one, including confessed users, who do not admit 
the dangers involved in LSD and "speed" use. Timothy 
Leary, a most renowned and notorious advocate of 
drug use, said in our hearing that only one in 10,000 
persons should take LSD. Even if this were true, 
there is no way to determine in advance of usage who 
that one person might be. 

October 1968 


Marijuana has become the most popular and con- 
troversial "new" drug in use. It is too early to know 
on the basis of scientific study what its effects are. It 
is well-known that marijuana alters one's sense percep- 
tion, so that hours after taking the drug, when one 
feels quite normal again, he may be a hazard to 
himself and others if he drives. Some users and 
professionals claim that it is injurious to body and 
mind, and recommend complete abstinence until the 
facts are more fully ascertained; others argue that it is 
no more harmful than tobacco or alcohol. If the 
latter position were true, it is like saying, "Why worry 
about a broken left pelvis? It is no worse than a 
broken right pelvis." 

To this writer, of even greater interest than the 
physiological and medical aspects of drug use are 
their personal and social implications. Why do people 
turn to drugs, and how does drug use and abuse 
affect their lives? This seems to be the crucial ques- 
tion. The subject is complex, and only some of the 
reasons can be indicated. 

( 1 ) Drug abuse is encouraged by socially irrespon- 
sible persons concerned only with their own economic 
gain. Tobacco and alcoholic beverage manufacturers 
spend millions and use every device known in adver- 
tising to make tobacco and alcohol enticing and 
appealing to people. They subtly associate these 
drugs with beauty, romance, recreation, manliness, 
femininity, prosperity, and a carefree existence. Never 
do they give an honest report of the evils or hazards 
of their trade. They fulfill the prophetic observation 

in the Word of Wisdom given in 1833, wherein the 
Lord revealed: 

". . . In consequence of evils and designs which do 
and will exist in the hearts of conspiring men in the 
last days, I have warned you and forewarn you, by 
giving unto you this word of wisdom by revelation." 
(D&C89:4. Italics added. ) 

The use of LSD, "speed," and marijuana is also 
greatly encouraged by those who make a profit from 
selling and pushing these products. Since these drugs 
are illegal in the United States, they are manufactured 
and/or imported with all the intrigue and misrepre- 
sentation involved in criminal transactions. 

(2) A second reason young people turn to drug use 
is because adults whom they admire and aspire to 
emulate— parents, entertainers, athletes, the well-to- 
do— serve as models for them. Nearly every youth is 
dissatisfied with being young, and he looks to adult- 
hood as the greener pasture. 

(3) A third reason for drug abuse is peer pressure. 
Smoking of tobacco and marijuana, drinking of alcohol, 
and taking of "speed" and LSD are learned behaviors 
greatly encouraged by group participation. Many an 
immature and unreflective youth who has not learned 
to respect his own individuality and who has not 
clearly defined for himself his own values is afraid not 
to be a conformist. He cherishes acceptance by the 
group through conformity more than he cherishes the 
strength of his own integrity. 

(4) Many students of human behavior are coming 
to see that drug abuse is symptomatic of deeper, 


Improvement Era 

underlying aspects of human life. Drugs are not taken 
for their own sake, but to fulfill other needs. Manv 
adults, bored with the trivia of their work and the 
shallowness of their lives— living without significant 
goals or creative interests— come home to fill their 
emptiness with alcohol. 

Young people often turn to mind-expanding drugs, 
hoping thereby to escape from school failure and 
boredom, from loneliness, from the fear of being 
drafted into military service and war, from the mean- 
ingless competitive chase after success. Not finding 
joy and peace within their own minds and hearts, they 
turn to chemical agents to bring about a change. 

Drug use by some young people is also a con- 
scious or unconscious symbol of rebellion against 
parents, school authorities, the church, and any 
establishment that they can rightfully or fallaciously 
blame for their own unhappy predicament. This is 
particularly true among some Latter-day Saint youth 
who, when angry and hostile, can easily and often 
unconsciously hurt their parents by going against 
obvious standards. This can take extreme forms and 
be in marked excess. 

Youth has always been adventurous and daring, 
curious, exploring, and willing to take risks that their 
elders have long since given up. In this age of com- 
plexity and conformity, of prolonged preparation and 
dependency, when many immediate doors of explora- 
tion seem to be closed to youth, it is difficult to be 
adventurous in constructive roles. Pioneering in the 
desert, homesteading, and beginning business on a 

shoestring are not as available as they once were. War 
has lost all of its glamour for most young men. Fail- 
ing to experience life as the exciting, creative venture 
it can be, some young people turn to drugs for kicks. 

In short, young people turn to drugs for many rea- 
sons and because of numerous pressures of which they 
are scarcely aware. 

As stated earlier, drugs have a legitimate place in 
human life, and in the hands of competent physicians 
of sound judgment they are a blessing to mankind. 
But when they are taken without medical direction 
and for reasons other than medical need, they become 
both dangerous to, and destructive of life. For this 
reason it is wisdom to leave them alone. Had LSD, 
marijuana, and "speed" been known in 1833, when 
the Word of Wisdom was given, well might the Lord 
have said of each as he did about alcoholic beverages 
and tobacco: ". . . behold it is not good." 

This writer's advice to young people is to leave 
the drugs mentioned above entirely alone, because in 
my observation they are destructive of health and 
happiness. And may I say parenthetically that in 
this judgment on drugs, I am not condemning my 
fellowmen who are using them. I count among my 
close friends persons who are heavy smokers and per- 
sistent drinkers. I admire and love these people. I 
respect them but reject their folly. At this moment an 
esteemed colleague of great knowledge and integrity 
is dying of lung cancer, which undoubtedly was en- 
couraged by his chain smoking for 40 years. Another 
esteemed colleague's days are numbered because of 

October 1968 


Photos by Eldon Linscnoren 

emphysema that is due to the same cause. 

I have talked with a number of young people who 
have used marijuana, LSD, and "speed," some of whom 
think it is a way to find heaven on earth. Never have 
I seen any illustrations of creative work come from 
their experiments. Some end in failure at school, 
others in financial difficulties due to their not meet- 
ing their responsibilities, and some live in a dream 
world quite unrelated to the realities around us. 
Some continue to function reasonably well because of 
their superior endowment. 

One of the most regrettable aspects of drug use is 
that it is a way for many to run away from problems 
rather than to confront and solve them with courage 
and intelligence. Unresolved problems compound 
themselves and show up again in larger and often 
uglier forms. Youth is an age in which to grow and 
mature by encountering and resolving issues. 

Drug use, except under necessity and for health 
reasons, seems to me to be a denial of the dignity of 
human nature as created by God and nature. It 
smacks of the doctrine of original sin, suggesting that 
man by nature is depraved and needs the saving grace 
of chemicals to help him lead a meaningful and joyful 

I am just one human being among billions with no 
talent to paint, compose, or sing, but God has given 
me hands with which to write a paragraph, greet a 
friend, hold a wife or daughter, plant a tree, and pick 
a peach. He has given me eyes with which to behold 
majestic mountains under the glow of a setting sun, 

the beauty of green fields reaching to the forest edge, 
and the delicate color and form of a rose. I have ears 
to hear birds sing, a Beethoven symphony, the voice 
of a friend. I have a mind rich in memory, with some 
power of imagination, and the capacity to see and 
create some order in the world about me. I have 
a heart to feel sympathy, compassion, and even sor- 
row as well as joy for the world around me. 

I trust my own capacity to live life deeply and fully 
with the resources God has given me more than I 
trust chemicals whose dangers I have seen and whose 
values I have not found. 

Those who encourage the use of harmful and illegal 
drugs for monetary or other selfish reasons are the 
real culprits. Those who push or sell LSD, marijuana, 
"speed," and similar drugs should be taken to task, 
convicted, and made to pay the penalty of the 
violation of law. Laws should, in my judgment, be 
passed to forbid the advertising of tobacco and alco- 
holic beverages. It is inconsistent and nonsensical to 
advise young people to abstain from harmful drugs on 
the one hand and then permit irresponsible citizens 
to entice them by deceptive advertising on the other. 

The drug user merits neither our judgment nor 
condemnation. "He that is without sin, let him cast 
the first stone." The task that faces us today is to help 
young people fill their lives with creative, life-satisfy- 
ing, and building experiences that will diminish the 
frustration, the failure, the fears, and the emptiness 
that cause them to turn to drugs for meaning and 
excitement. . O 


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October 1968 

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October 1968 


Garden Room on 

second floor has 

reception area, 

door leading to 

garden between 

Beehive, Lion Houses. 


By Eleanor Knowles 

Editorial Associate 


Front parlor of Lion 

House, where YWM/A 

was organized, 

features portrait of 

President Brigham Young. 

In Children's Room, 

youngsters can learn 

about pioneer heritage. 


Graceful new stairway 

was installed to 

help facilitate 

traffic in home. In background 

is Children's Room. 

• The warmth, charm, and spirit of the Church's 
pioneer period have been recaptured in the Lion 
House, which was reopened in September following 
a four-year remodeling period. One of Salt Lake 
City's most famous landmarks and home of President 
Brigham Young, the Lion House was built in 1855-56 
and is now administered by the Young Women's Mu- 
tual Improvement Association as a social center. 

Inside and out the house has undergone extensive 
remodeling, but the original architecture has been 
preserved. The home was designed by Truman O. 
Angell, who helped design the Salt Lake Temple. 
The home, built in the style of early English homes 
(reflecting the New England background of Brigham 
Young), is located on East South Temple Street be- 
tween the Church Administration Building and the 
Bee Hive House. 

As one approaches the Lion House, one of the first 
changes that will be noted is the cream-colored fac- 
ing. The house was originally built of adobe and 
sandstone (which the pioneers called "grindstone") 
from nearby City Creek Canyon. Some years ago, 
when the original outside walls became badly cracked 
and eroded, a cement plaster was applied. This has 
now been removed, and a new finishing has been 
added that more nearly duplicates the original, which 
was described by one of Brigham Young's daughters, 
Clarissa Spencer Young, as "cream plaster, which with 
the white woodwork and green shutters made a very 
lovely appearance." 

The reclining stone lion that gives the home its 
name, and which was sculptured by William Ward, 
remains in place above the porch at the south 

Other structural changes include installation of an 
elevator to service all floors, construction of an addi- 
tional stairway, air conditioning, and steel beam rein- 
forcements, making the building structurally sound 
and safe. However, all of the furnishings, floor cover- 
ings, and wall and woodwork finishes are either 
originals in the home or authentically restored to the 
pioneer period. 

In Brigham Young's day, hub of family activity was 

on the first (or street-level) floor, which featured the 
long dining room where as many as 70 family members 
and guests ate. Other rooms on this floor included 
large vegetable and fruit cellars; a weaving room, 
where carpets and cloth were woven; milk room, for 
storage of milk, cream, butter, and cheese; laundry 
room; pantries and cupboards; bathrooms; and a huge 

In the northwest corner was a room that served as 
the schoolroom until the schoolhouse was completed 
in 1862. This room then became the family's recrea- 
tion room. Here the children gathered for parties 
and entertainments. Large steel hooks were attached 
to the walls for pulling molasses or vinegar candy, and 
there was a small stove for popping corn. 

Today this floor is the setting for the Lion House 
Pantry, a cafeteria for Church employees and others, 
where members may obtain home-cooked lunches and 
afternoon refreshments five days a week at nominal 
cost. There are a number of small dining rooms, in 
addition to the main dining room, and in good weather 
diners may take their trays into the garden between 
the Lion House and Bee Hive House. 

The second floor of the home was originally devoted 
to sitting rooms for President Young's families. In the 
southwest corner was the large front parlor, or prayer 
room, where President Young gathered his family 
for counsel and prayers. 

According to Clarissa Spencer Young, "About seven 
o'clock in the evening Father would go to his room, 
light a candle in the tall, brass candlestick, come into 
our sitting room across the hall, and say quietly, Time 
for prayers.' No matter what we were doing or who 
was there, we dropped everything and followed him 
through the long narrow hall [from the Bee Hive 
House] and stepped into the parlor of the Lion 
House. . . . 

"Father would step to the glass cupboard, take 
down the prayer bell, go to the door, and give three 
distinct rings. After a moment he would put the 
prayer bell back and take his place ... in the center of 
the room. In a very short time the patter of feet 
would be heard in the long hallway upstairs and 

October 1968 


1875 Room, one of the 

second floor parlors, 

is decorated in rich 

red and black shades. 

Photos by Lonn Wiggins 

down, and the children would come tripling in to be 
followed by their mothers with a more sedate 
tread. . . . 

"Father usually discussed the topics of the day, and 
then we would all join in singing some familiar songs, 
either old-time ballads or songs of religious nature. 
Finally we would all kneel down while Father offered 
the evening prayers." 

The original prayer bell is still in this room, and the 
parlor has been furnished as it was in President 
Young's day. 

Other rooms on this floor now include the 1875 
Room, the Social Room, the Pioneer Room, and the 
Garden Room. The latter opens out onto the garden, 
and a small service kitchen has been built adjoining 
it, making it an attractive setting for wedding 

One of the most charming and unusual features of 
the home is the Children's Room, just east of the main 
entrance. Here children can come on special occa- 
sions to learn about their pioneer heritage and to hear 
stories of pioneer families and experiences. They 
can also pop corn at a small stove, pull molasses candy, 
and turn a freezer for ice cream. 

The third floor originally had 20 bedrooms, ten on 
each side of the long central hall, with a small fire- 
place and a dormer window in each room. (These dor- 
mer windows give the home its distinctive English 
appearance from the outside.) The walls separating 
the bedrooms have been removed, and three large 
reception rooms are now located on the south and 
west sides, with sliding partitions dividing them. The 
largest room is the Banquet Room, which can seat 
up to 100 people. Next to this is the Gable Room, 
and then the Buffet Room. When all three rooms are 
opened up, groups of up to 200 people can be accom- 
modated. A large, modern kitchen and pantries and 
storage rooms are on the east side of this floor. From 
the banquet room, a door opens onto a balcony over- 
looking the garden. 

Throughout the home the finest furnishings have 
been placed. Ingrained carpets woven to a design of 
the pioneer period are featured on the second and 

third floors (the first floor has a beautifully stained 
wooden floor). Damask, brocade, mohair, dimity, 
and other luxurious fabrics of Brigham Young's day 
have been used in the upholstery and window cover- 
ings. Some of the furniture, was originally in the 
home. Other pieces were located in homes, garages, 
antique shops, and stores throughout the country, 
from New York to San Francisco. Among the most 
beautiful finds are two crystal chandeliers that once 
were used in the governor's mansion in New 

Following Brigham Young's death in 1877, the Lion 
House remained in the hands of family members for 
a short time and was then purchased by the Church. 
It served as office space for a number of years, and 
later became a home economics laboratory for the old 
Latter-day Saints University. When that school was 
closed in 1931, the First Presidency turned the home 
over to the YWMIA for use as a social center for the 
women and girls of the Church. During the years 
until it was closed for remodeling in 1964, the home 
was the scene of classes, socials, and activities of 
thousands of young women, particularly those who 
were living away from home. 

The Lion House has special significance for mem- 
bers of the YWMIA, for it was in the front parlor 
that Brigham Young called his wives and daughters 
together on November 28, 1869, and organized them 
into the Young Ladies Department of the Coopera- 
tive Retrenchment Association, admonishing them to 
cultivate a modest apparel, improve their speech, and 
set a good example before the world worthy of 
imitation. This organization later became what is 
now known as the Young Women's Mutual Improve- 
ment Association. During 1969 the YWMIA will ob- 
serve its centennial, and many of the centennial 
activities will revolve around the Lion House. 

Managing the policies and activities of the center 
is a board of directors working under the direction 
of President Florence S. Jacobsen and counselors 
Margaret R. Jackson and Dorothy P. Flolt, the YWMIA 
general presidency. Mrs. Dorothea Ludlow is hostess- 
manager of the Lion House. O 


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( II 


by James E. Talmage 




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Enclosed is my check or money order for $2.80. Please send my copy of 
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October 1968 

Now Western isn't 




Air West jets leave every day at 8 a.m. 12 :55 p.m. 


Improvement Era 

the only way to fly 
Los Angeles. 

5:10 p.m. Call Air West or your Travel Agent. 

October 1968 


Lest We Forget 


Americas First Department Store 

By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 

• To a large extent the early 
Saints were .not merchantmen; 
they were breakers of sod, builders 
of canals, tillers of soil, beginners 
of virgin farms in arid valleys that, 
with the application of much labor, 
blossomed as the rose. 

But as the problems of produc- 
ing foodstuffs were overcome, 
other problems had to be dealt 
with. A place of merchandise was 
needed. Thus on October 9, 
1868, leaders of the Church 
met, and "it was decided to take 
immediate steps to establish a 
cooperative mercantile business, 
wholesale and retail, to supply the 
wants of the people of the terri- 
tory. Over $70,000 was subscribed 
in the council." (Manuscript His- 
tory of Brigham Young, 1868, 
p. 1178.) 

The plan was discussed in the 
various wards, and at a meeting 
in Salt Lake City's Council Hall 
on October 15, Brigham Young was 
chosen president and W. H. 
Hooper vice president of Zion's 
Cooperative Association. 

President Young had said: 
"There are too many men en- 
gaged in merchandising here. Two 
thirds of them ought to be out 
in the fields." He added, "It is our 
duty to bring goods here and sell 
them as low as they can pos- 
sibly be sold and let the profits 
be divided with the people at 
large." He recognized the talent 
of women as "salesmen" and 
"traders," and urged that the men 
find other work. 

The name of the new associa- 

tion was later changed to Zion's 
Cooperative Mercantile Institution, 
and on March 1, 1869, it opened 
for business in the Eagle Em- 
porium on the southwest corner of 
First South and Main streets. Be- 
fore the store opened at nine that 
morning, President Young dedi- 
cated it and all its contents to the 
service of the people. Then he 
made the first purchase. A sec- 
ond store opened ten days later 
up the street in the old Constitu- 
tion Building, and one in the 
Ransohoff Building April 21. Thus 
the stores functioned until the 
present store was opened in 1876. 
Additions on Main Street were 
completed in 1880 and 1902. The 
cast-iron store front has been de- 
clared a fine example of the na- 
tion's architectural heritage of 
the period. 

Merchants, especially in the 
East, were skeptical that a co- 
operative institution would suc- 
ceed. Some of the people who 
subscribed for stock felt the pinch 
of recurring hard times and had 
to let their investment go, but 
many other families whose fore- 
fathers subscribed for ownership 
shares still have stock in ZCMI. 
From the beginning the store was 
an innovation in that there were 
departments for shoes, hats, and 
the like, giving it the designation 
America's first department store. 

Almost from the beginning the 
wares included groceries, clothing, 
drugs, shoes, dry goods, wagons 
and machinery, produce, trunks, 
and sewing machines. By 1873 

the store was selling hardware, 
tools, implements, and crockery, 
as well as the luxury items of fancy 
notions, carpets, and upholstery 

President George Albert Smith, 
the President of the Church from 
1945 to 1951, on occasion used 
to fill his sermons with personal 
experiences: As a youth he worked 
in the overall and boot factories, 
and as a young man of 20, he 
traveled by horse and buggy 
through Utah to Panaca, Nevada, 
as a ZCMI salesman. Such men 
were the friends of the small 
merchants of the various com- 

His predecessor, President He- 
ber J. Grant, who was President 
of the Church from 1918 to 1945, 
recalled how he had been born 
in his parents' home, located on 
the site of the future Main Street 
home of ZCMI. When he was a 
small boy and his widowed mother 
moved, he vowed that he would 
purchase the property back. In 
early manhood he did build his 
mother a home, but she selected 
another location for it. 

ZCMI has grown with the 
area, and has done much to 
nurture growth during the cen- 
tury that the firm has been in 
operation. Its stores are now 
operating at the downtown loca- 
tion, in southeast Salt Lake 
County, and in Ogden. A store is 
also being built in southwest Salt 
Lake County, and another is 
planned for the Orem-Provo, Utah, 
area. O 


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The Era Asks About 

President Joseph Fielding Smith, Church Historian and recorder. A William Lund, an assistant Church historian since 1911. 

The Church Historian's Office 

Latter-day Saints have been called a record-keeping people, and the Church Historian's 
Office (CHO) is the primary repository of information about the Church. Three persons, 
well qualified from their years of service and training, participate in this interview: Presi- 
dent Joseph Fielding Smith of the First Presidency , who has been Church Historian since 
1921; A William Lund, assistant Church historian, who is celebrating his sixtieth year in 
the CHO; and Earl E. Olson, assistant Church historian, who has been the spokesman for 
all three on most of the questions. 

Q. For about 138 years the Church Historian's 
Office (CHO) has been gathering Church records 
and collecting literature dealing with the Church. 
How much material has the CHO gathered up to now? 

A. We have not inventoried our holdings since 1965, 
but at that time we had 47,976 printed volumes, 
42,232 pamphlets, 9,007 positive rolls of microfilm, 
14,510 volumes of hand-written manuscripts, includ- 
ing 2,022 volumes of patriarchal blessings, 231,455 
minute books and records of members, and over one 
million individual papers, paintings, photographs, 
tapes, phono discs, and other items. 

Q. Are you able to store all of this in the Church 
Office Building? 

A. No. About 40 percent of our materials, such as 
minute books and newspapers, are stored at our 
vaults in the Salt Lake industrial complex, about five 

miles southwest of Church headquarters. In the CHO 
we keep most of the manuscript histories, photographs, 
minutes from wards and, stakes, and so forth. 

Q. How extensive is your collection of photographs, 
records, films, and paintings? 

A. We have a large photographic collection, which 
continues to increase through our practice of obtain- 
ing photographs of all stake presidencies and bishops. 
Our collection of paintings is not large, primarily be- 
cause we have not taken any special steps to acquire 
them. We have on phono discs all of the Church 
general conference proceedings since April 1939, as 
well as several talks given in the April 1936 confer- 
ence. We now record the conferences on tapes and 
will shortly have transferred to tapes all of the con- 
ference proceedings that were previously only on 
discs. We have the voices of all of the Church Presi- 


Improvement Era 

Earl E. Olson, assistant Church historian since 1965. Sian Morgan, customer services section, helps answer queries. 

dents since and including President Joseph F. Smith, 
whose voice was taken from a cylinder on which he 
had dictated some letters. Also, we have an oral 
recorded testimony of Wilford Woodruff given in 

Q. How do you acquire material for the CHO? 

A. We have several people who are responsible for 
acquisition in three different fields: (1) the library 
section— books, pamphlets, periodicals, newspapers, 
and other printed items; (2) the manuscript section- 
histories of stakes and missions, motion pictures, tapes, 
documents, pictures, maps, and journal histories; 
(3) the written section— all minutes of the organiza- 
tions of the Church. These librarians and archivists 
analyze catalogs from book dealers and search other 
channels in order to keep abreast of materials in 
which we might be interested. 

Q. Could members of the Church help with record 
and manuscript acquisitions? 

A. Yes. Some official records of the Church have 
remained in private hands. It would be helpful if all 
members realized that all minutes of Church organiza- 
tions should be filed in Church archives. It would 
also be helpful if members would place manuscripts, 
diaries, collections of important letters, printed ma- 
terials, and other Church-related items in this central 
depository for the benefit of future researchers. 

Q. How does a person know if he has something 
of historical importance? 

A. Ask us. We will be glad to give an opinion. 

Q. Is the CHO designed to be used by members 
of the Church? 

A. Our first responsibility is to obtain Church records 
so that they can be preserved. Our second responsi- 
bility is to make the records available for use and to 
service the needs of members of the Church. 

Q. How does the CHO service the needs of mem- 
bers of the Church? 

A. Many members need help in proving their births 
for social security, medicare, and insurance purposes. 
We assist members in completing their priesthood au- 
thority lines. Some persons have lost the copy of their 
patriarchal blessings and desire another copy. There is 
a charge for two of these services: $1.00 for birth 
certificates and 25c for duplication of blessings. In 
addition, many members are interested in biographical 
material pertaining to their lives or the lives of family 
members, and many researchers, writers, scholars, 
and students request help on theses, dissertations, arti- 
cles, books, or in-depth reports. 

Q. Are nonmembers free to use the facilities of the 

A. Yes. We make no distinction between members 

October 1968 


and nonmembers as far as .the use of the library- 
archives is concerned. 

Q. How do you respond to the image of suppres- 
sion of materials that in the past has been identi- 
fied with research at CHO? 

A. Certainly some researchers have been displeased 
because we have not made some of the records as 
freely available as they would like. But many archives 
have problems in these areas. For example, certain 
original documents have to be restricted in usage 
because of their inherent value, age, or condition. 
Some of these original records have been micro- 
filmed and can be seen on microfilm, but others have 
not yet been microfilmed. So far we have done little 
microfilming of original documents and letters, and 
comparatively few diaries. As time and budget allow, 
we will microfilm many of these in order that re- 
searchers may read them. We have an additional 
problem with personal journals. Years ago, journals 
were filed with the understanding with the donors 
that they would be made available only to descendants 
of the writer. We try to avoid such agreements now, 

but are bound by past agreements. However, we hope 
that in time families will release many of the journals 
for research. Also, we have a ruling that those per- 
sons who are writing or who have written to discredit 
the Church are denied access to our facilities. 

Q. Are there types of records that are not available 
to any researcher? 

A. Yes— minutes of stake presidency, high council, 
and bishopric meetings, high council trials, or bishops' 
trials. These and similar records involve personal status 
of individuals that we feel researchers have no right to 
read. Our view is shared by others, even in business 
and industry. Many companies do not open their con- 
fidential board of director minutes to researchers. One 
can understand the reasons for such a policy. 

Q. Is the CHO the depository of all Church records? 

A. No. We do not hold minutes of meetings of the 
First Presidency or of the Council of the Twelve. They 
are filed in their own care. Also, we do not have some 
of the records of such Church departments as the 
financial, building, and legal departments. — *- 


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October 1968 


Dean C. Jessee, chief archivist cataloguer, assists scholars. Fern Scott, written records cataloguer, views old minute books. 

Q. Have you cataloged all items and materials in 
the CHO? 

A. For many years we operated with a shortage of 
personnel, and many items went uncataloged. Also, 
many boxes were stored in the basement from the days 
when the CHO was moved to the Church Office 
Building in 1917. But we have undertaken a vast 
recataloging program. A new library classification 
system for Mormon collections has been developed, 
and we have found it sufficiently useful that we are 
recataloging all of our printed material. We have 
completed several sections, but the library section 
may take another five years to complete. It is a 
tremendously difficult task to recatalog an archive 
and library with as much material as we have. This 
recataloging should help researchers in their studies, 
and it has helped us in our filing and storing pro- 

Obviously, the significance of any item we store 
may not be known until something connected with it 
is uncovered, such as the papyri rediscovery, for 
example. The rediscovery of the papyri reminded us 
of the papyrus fragment that we have had all along in 
the CHO. Our role is to process records, catalog 
them, and store them— not to research them, interpret 
them, or for that matter to even read them. We read 
comparatively little of that which comes even in 
English. I suppose the true significance of many 

items will never be known until new discoveries are 
made by others to correlate certain relationships. 

Q. How do you cope with record keeping in a multi- 
lingual Church? 

A. Minute books and records of stakes, wards, and 
missions are usually recorded in the language of the 
country. We do not have personnel at the CHO who 
read all the languages of the Church, but we are able 
to recognize the type of record— or request assistance 
from the Translation Department— so we can process 
the records. Researchers wanting to use such records 
would have to know the language in order to use 

Q. How do you acquire materials about the Church 
in non-English-speaking countries? 

A. Priesthood leadership throughout the world is 
urged to forward materials pertaining to the Church. 
We rely on local Church leaders in this aspect of our 

Q. In a world that is seeing a rapid spread of the 
gospel and also witnessing a communications media 
explosion, will the CHO be able to store all literature 
related to the Church? 

A. We presume that in time we will microfilm at 
least some of the minutes of Church organizations. 


Improvement Era 

Written records section houses thousands of auxiliary reports. Thomas G. Truitt, acquisitions supervisor, directs purchases. 

Beyond that, we do not foresee any problems in the 
immediate future. We have sufficient space avail- 
able for some years yet. 

Q. The CHO certainly contains the greatest single 
source of materials about the Church. Are other out- 
standing collections also available? 

A. Yes. The Brigham Young University has a fine 
collection of diaries and documents. The Utah State 
Historical Society has many valuable historical items 
pertaining to Utah and members of the Church. The 
Daughters of the Utah Pioneers Museum has a fine 
collection, as does the Salt Lake City Public Library. 
Other libraries that have important collections about 
the Church include the Huntington Library in San 
Marino, California; Bancroft Library at the University 
of California at Berkeley; and Yale University Library 
in New Haven, Connecticut. 

Q. President Smith, what is the purpose of the 
Historian's Office? 

A. (President Joseph Fielding Smith) The Lord 
commanded in the very beginning, even from the days 
of Adam, that a record be kept. It was a divine com- 
mandment from the Garden of Eden. Also, Book of 
Mormon history records that Lehi and his family were 
not to go without records, so they went back to Jeru- 
salem to obtain them. The Lord has always had 

someone appointed to keep records, and we are under 
the same commandment. One of the first command- 
ments given to the Prophet Joseph Smith was that a 
record should be kept, and that Oliver Cowdery should 
assist him with it. 

Q. How extensively should CHO records be used? 

A. A record is of no use if it isn't used. Historical 
records are beneficial to all people, and the doctrinal 
records are a blessing to all mankind. 

Q. Brother Lund, the assignment of the Journal 
History has been viewed with major importance. 
What is the Journal History and how do you keep it? 

A. ( A. William Lund ) The Journal History is a day- 
by-day record of events worthy of being recorded. It 
is a daily journal that has been kept since 1830. News- 
papers are clipped and pasted in the entry for each 

The Journal History is something peculiar to the 
Church, but it presents a remarkable survey of the 
times and the progress of the kingdom of God in the 
earth. It is a wonderful experience to be associated 
with this type of record keeping. It makes me appre- 
ciate the work of our prophet-historians who wrote 
the books of the Bible and the Book of Mormon, Our 
heritage, especially our historical or record-keeping 
heritage, truly is unique and inspiring. O 

October 1968 


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Elaine Cannon, Ass 

From the crew's crow's nest, 
the crowd stretches endlessly. 

Missionaries make many friends 
among crowd before pageant time. 

Kitchen at old Joseph Smith home 
near Palmyra fascinates visitors. 

The Pageant 

• All is still. Everything is dark. Suddenly at the top of the Hill 
Cumorah a light appears, and in the light a figure representing the resur- 
rected Christ descends to earth. This most dramatic finale to the Hill 
Cumorah Pageant thrillingly concludes the story of Christ's ministry in 
the New World. 

The thought of the Savior on this sacred hill, and all of us at his 
feet in a pure attitude of worship, brought to mind a scripture: "Who 
shall ascend unto the hill of the Lord? . . . He that hath clean hands, 
and a pure heart. . . ." (Ps. 24:3-4.) Of such is the caliber of the cast 
presenting scenes of Christ's ministry in the western hemisphere. 

Those of us who ascended unto this hill of the Lord, believing, came 
away fed and blessed and strengthened in our resolves in the gospel. 
Those who were strangers to the principles Christ taught, or to the pro- 
gram of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, were awakened 
to the incredible sweetness in the life and message of the Savior. To- 
gether we participated in a most remarkable religious experience. This 
seems to be a significant thing about the pageant. 

Oh, it's good entertainment. Young and old alike are spellbound at 
the battles and the scenes of destruction, thrilled at the mood created by 
the portrayal of the nativity, sobered to hear King Benjamin's address. 

Crawford Gates' musical score is deeply moving and descriptive. The 
visual effects, the costumes, the characterizations add to the total impact. 
The lessons of the Book of Mormon hit home. Night after night the solid 
lanes of traffic creep into the quiet countryside for hours at a time before 
the production begins. People perch on trailer tops, boxes, ladders. They 
picnic on blankets until starting time. That it is a success is obvious. 

"But why the pageant?" people ask. "Such a fantastic undertaking!" 
"What beautiful young people !" "I've never been so moved in all of 
my life!" they exclaim. And before and after the pageant they eagerly 
buy the copies of the Book of Mormon being offered by these "beautiful 
young people." *"*" 

Elders Ross Bishop, Scott 
Potter pause to visit with 
Lorna Lee of Rigby, Idaho. 

Mr. and Mrs. Harper Wallace, Salt Lake City, 
conduct tour group of Hawaiians to pageant. 

Debby Remley and Ruth Ludlow take time 
to pose beside scenery of Lehi's ship. 

Crew members who deserve praise for work in 
pageant included Bruce Finch, Glade Powell. 



I'll always remember what 
President Bankhead said as he 
set the atmosphere and point of 
emphasis for the upcoming two 
weeks: "Put the Mormon Church 
in the back of your mind for a 
time, and ask the people, 'What 
do you know about Christ? 
Would you like to know moreV " 

We spent a week studying, mem- 
orizing, practicing, and praying 
to learn how to present this 
question in such a way that the 
answer to the latter question 
would be yes, and we could place 
copies of the Book of Mormon 
into the hands of those who at- 
tend the pageant." 

"It was 5:30 Saturday evening 
in the Sacred Grove, and time to 
leave that sacred spot for the last 
time. Three of us read together 
a few scriptures we had learned 
to love that week; and then, find- 
ing a secluded spot, we knelt in 
prayer, each asking that the 
spirit of love, dedication, and 
testimony might endure long 
after our pageant experience. » 

Feeling a surge of frustration 

Cumorah Mission elders have heavy re- 
sponsibilities during the pageant week. 

Donna Pond, Carma Prescott, and Linda 
Gender take time for some recreation. 

October 1968 

and fear sweep through her 
being, one girl took me a little 
way into the trees and with tear- 
filled eyes pleaded, "Pray for me. 
Just pray for me." 

"At two o'clock in the morning 
we of the work crews were still 
manning the light towers, trying 
to perfect the effect desired as 
Abinadi burned at the stake.'' 

U A group of ten or 12 of us 
gathered on Sunday to sing 
hymns together and to get to 
know better the deeper, spiritual 
side of each other." 

By Thursday of the first week 
the five or six scriptures for 
memorization each day, plus 
four Book of Mormon concepts 
to be learned as the background 
for approaches, had overwhelmed- 
most of us. We realized how 
little we knew about the Book of 
Mormon. Humbled by an aware- 
ness of our weaknesses, we then 
turned to the Lord to ask in real 
sincerity for his help." 

u The evening meetings of the WW 
first week gave us the chance to 
hear the testimonies of converts,-*- 

Five-year-old Kimberly Reeder escorts 
two visitors' down path at Hill Cumorah. 


Debby Remley, Schenectady, N. Y., 
waits near scenery for her cue. 

Harley Remley, 13, learns from Elder Don 
Coombs, who plays Moroni in the pageant. 

Ruth Ludlow (left) tries on cos- 
tume, while Linda Newland ushers. 

Donna Gray and Diana Robertson, 
both of Idaho; Linda Lang, Nev- 
ada; and Lorna Ellgen, Colorado. 


The pageant is a missionary effort, and cast and crew, director 
Harold I. Hansen and technicians Paul Evans and Richard Welch, Cumorah 
Mission president Reid Bankhead, Cumorah Stake president Bryant Ros- 
siter, and associate manager Don Brererton agree that the tremendous 
effort is well worth it when there is such evidence that lives are changed. 

This is a production you can watch free of charge, but you must 
pay to be in it ! Lodging for volunteer participants is furnished by towns- 
people, most of whom are not members of the Church. Meals were served 
on arrangement in the Cumorah Ward and in the basement of the First 
Presbyterian Church. 

But it's fun ! Young people plan their summer schedules around 
the hope of being accepted as pageant participants. Families schedule 
their vacations to meet the pageant dates. Whole families trek to the 
Hill Cumorah and spend their year's vacation preparing and proselyting 
and performing. All who are connected with the pageant keep mission 
standards in dress, behavior, attitude, and schedule. 

There are rehearsals each night of the week before the public per- 
formances. But during the day cast members are divided into study 
groups led by the full-time missionaries of the Cumorah Mission. There 
the Book of Mormon is studied, missionary lessons are learned, scriptures 
are memorized, and truths are applied. Testimony meetings, held every 
morning in the Sacred Grove where the PropTiet Joseph Smith had his 
first vision, are life-changing occasions. Participants have gospel dis- 
cussions with nonmembers in the audience before show time. They take 
countless photos and exchange autographs. They make friends from far 
places. They take in the scenic sights, the historical points . . . the 
Peter Whitmer farm at Fayette where the Church was organized over 
100 years ago . . . the Martin Harris farm that was mortgaged so the 
first Book of Mormon could be published . . . the Smith family home, 
which is so charmingly restored and but a short walk from the Sacred 
Grove . . . the Hill Cumorah itself, where Moroni hid the golden plates 
in ancient days. 

So another pilgrimage to this special place is over. 

Elsewhere in this section are comments from the young students 
themselves who participated in this tremendous undertaking. O 

Sharon Christensen, Kathleen Burke, Jeanne 
Jarrard, Patricia Wood meet for breakfast. 

Era of Youth 

:■■'■ ■■■■■■m 

Preparing breakfast is Nancy 
Wilson, Midwest City, Okla. 

Shawna Clayson of Mexico, New York, and Eileen Waldron 
of Logan, Utah, span continent in friendship at pageant. 

Participants from the East greet those from 
the West, who journeyed to pageant by bus. 

most of whom had been con- 
verted within the past year. We 
felt their spirit and heard of the 
changes in their lives. Some of 
them had been contacted for the 
first time by pageant partici- 
pants of past years." 


My heart leaped as tears came 
into the eyes of a pageant visitor 
who heard my testimony when I 
presented him with a copy of the 
Book of Mormon." 

As the pageant proceeded, 
small groups of us huddled in the 
dark on both sides of the stage 
to share the experiences gained 
that evening while placing copies 
of the Book of Mormon." 

We had shared spiritual experi- 
ences before, but here they took 
place all day, every day, for two 
weeks. We had no other goal but 
to study the gospel and seek to be 
close to the Spirit with all our 
heart, mind, and strength." 

"One could see young ladies 
running to the booths on the side 
of the seating area to purchase 
-more copies of the Book of Mor- 
mon. They were too excited to 

New Yorkers Lorraine Rich, Etta Smith 
welcome Utah performer Geneive Potter. 

Wayne Hales takes time to meditate in 
peaceful surroundings of Sacred Grove. 

October 1968 

walk — too excited about the con- 
versation just terminated, too 
enthusiastic about the possibility 
of sharing the message of Christ 
with other wonderful people. " 

"Why couldn't I have thought 
of that last night!" exclaimed 
one sister as a missionary ex- 
plained how a rather difficult 
question could be answered." 

u Just as I was to enter the 
light for my scene, I was envel- 
oped by the Spirit of the Lord, 
and at that moment I came to 
know the Savior, that he lives 
and loves me. " 

"An elder comforted a. disap- 
pointed sister when a family 
failed to accept her message and 
buy a Book of Mormon. "Not. all 
people are yet willing to receive 
a witness of the Spirit. It takes a 
receptive heart on the part of the 
listener as well," she was told. " 

u Thoughts of home and family 
were far from our minds as we 
two sisters sat during supper 
practicing dialogues on each 
other: "Be an agnostic this time 
and let me see if I can place a 
book with you." 99 

Rallying 'round flag are Marily Trapnell, California; 
RaNae Field, Idaho; Roena Pollard, Colorado; Ellen 
Spencer, Idaho; Diana Alldredge, Arizona. 


Soloist performs in concert for 
Exceptional Children's Week. 

In scene from "The Ugly Duckling" (left), BYU students 
(standing) help training school students (in wheelchairs). 

• Young people everywhere are seeking life's 
purpose. Most of them want to be useful, to per- 
form a service, to feel needed. Recently, a hand- 
ful of students found what they were looking 
for. Through their efforts, the shroud of fear 
and doubt regarding the intellectually handi- 
capped has begun to dissolve. 

Two years ago, two young men, both in search 
of a purpose in life, were persuaded to visit the 
Utah State Training School at American Fork. 
What Larry Parks and Dustin Carsey found there 
were children who had the basic need of being 
loved, the same as normal children — except these 
individuals knew how to give an exceptional 
Christ-like love. They knew no enemies, but had 
too few friends. 

It was an instant love affair between Larry, 
Dusty, and these young people. Both men were 
called to be officers in the MIA at the school, 
and both spent their Sunday afternoons there. 

Soon they realized how badly most of these 
youths wanted to learn, and they were awed by 
their ambition. Although Dusty and Larry were 
not certified teachers, they shared their knowl- 
edge and were amazed to find that some had 
beautiful singing voices, some had a good sense 
of rhythm, some read well, and they all had a 
good sense of humor. They were talented! 
Despite their obvious handicaps, they could per- 
form with the best of the troopers. President 
Hugh B. Brown recently remarked during the 

Era of Youth 

Dustin Carsey and Larry Parks, 
left, and Carol Anne Schuster. 

A Dream Is 
Not Enough 

By Dona Gregory 

dedication of a new chapel at the school, "I have 
never seen a man or woman who, in some respect, 
was not my superior." 

One youngster who was confined to a wheel- 
chair asked if someday perhaps they could do a 
play. This presented no small problem for Dusty, 
as most of those who wanted to participate were 
in wheelchairs, and some could not speak very 
well. But they all understood, and they all 
wanted to give and be received by those who led 
normal lives in a world different from their own. 

To have others see these children as Dusty 
and Larry saw them became a, dream. To have 
others see their talent, love, and appreciation 
seemed as insurmountable as moving the Empire 
State Building with a toothpick for leverage! 

Then one afternoon Tamara Fowler, a promi- 
nent young woman in the dramatic arts depart- 
ment at Brigham Young University, suggested 
that the play The Ugly Duckling be presented 
by the children from the school in the experimental 
theater at the university. 

Between Dusty and Tamara, the idea developed 
of making a pre-recorded tape, using students 
from BYU so that the children would only have 
to move their mouths to the dialogue. Then, for 
those in wheelchairs, Dusty, Tamara, Larry, and 
some additional colleagues would dress in incon- 
spicuous dark robes (so that the children, dressed 
in brightly colored costumes, would be the center 
of attention) and wheel the real "stars" of the 

production from scene to scene on the stage. 

Not only did it work, but the performance was 
performed before standing-room-only crowds, 
concluding with few dry eyes. 

With the success of The Ugly Duckling came 
the inspiration for Exceptional Children's Week 
at Brigham Young University. 

Carol Anne Schuster, a talented Jewish convert 
to the Church, also was trying to find meaning 
in her life. She had tried a career in professional 
nursing in New York City. Deciding that it was 
a wrong choice for her, she came to BYU as a 
speech-dramatic arts major. She had nearly de- 
cided to give this up too when she discovered 
Dusty, Larry, and those people whose handicaps 
leave them in the land of never-grow-up. 

Putting all of her talent in this direction, she 
wrote and directed the concert for Exceptional 
Children's Week — a concert made up of nearly 
175 handicapped children throughout the state of 
Utah, with a children's choir, individual vocalists, 
and a rhythm band. 

After the performance members of the audi- 
ence swarmed backstage to congratulate the 
youngsters — not out of pity, but out of sincere 
gratitude for being shown a new, bright side of the 
intellectually handicapped. 

Today, what started out to be a dream has 
partially become a reality because a handful of 
people cared enough to work and make it come 
true. O 

October 1968 


Apples are for polishing. 
They're people-pleasers. 
So are kind looks and gen- 
tle phrases. 

Balls are foi 
games. Peoj 
get around 


Fun is for having. 

Girls are for loving others. 

Boys are for leading Hearts and hearths 

others. When the twain hands and houses are 

is twisted the "system" nicest when they're warm 

suffers. and ivelcoming. 

Ideas are J 

Noises are for listening to — 
like night birds and night 
locks, anthems, foghorns, 
canoe paddles, toe tappers, 
and the intricate idiom of 
new music. 

Obedience is for teens who 
want to honor their par- 
ents, that their days may 
be long on the land that 
the Lord has given them. 

is for peoj 
and pattern 
give deligh 

Truth is for telling. 

Understanding is for trying 
times. It's for parents and 
children and teachers and 

Virtue is indeed its own 

Watching is f 
ones — watch 
ters, fashio? 
your step. 
watching yc 

Clocks are for ticking and 

*• bouncing in tocking. Some people are 

and volley like clocks — they make 

lie with bounce things tick with their 

more, too. 


Doing is what comes natur- 
ally to those who have 
boned up on gracious be- 
havior already. 

Eyes are for eyeing the beau- 
ties about — like the eyes 
of a friend and dew in the 

hr getting. 

lie and places 
s of living that 
t in all their 

or the smart 
ing pace-set- 
i trends, and 
Someone is 
w, too. Look 

Jobs are for finishing well— Love is to give and to take at 

school jobs, church jobs, Kisses are for keeping until the right time in the right 
job jobs, home jobs. the real thing comes along. way. 

Quiet is for savoring. 

Remembering is for lonely 
nights in one's own wilder- 
ness. It's sweeter when 
memories are memorable. 

Smiles are for sharing. 
Smiles are for spreading 
sunshine. Smiles are for 
making anyone better 

X marks the spot where you 
are. Where do you go 
from here? 

Youth is for having once in 
a lifetime. Cherish it. 

Zzzzzz makes you sleepy. But 
are you going to zzzz your 
life away? 

Smokers think smoking is a 

A human being undergoes a 

strange, unconscious 

metamorphosis when he becomes 

a smoker. He develops 

a dual personality, the two parts 

of which are 

quite incompatible. 

One day he is a normal member 
of humanity, fully aware 
and conscious of his training, 
his privileges, and his obligations 
in society. 

He is considerate of others, 



By Keith E. Montague 

Illustrated by Jerry Thompson 

Era of Youth 

personal habit, but it isn't— it's a public habit. 

courteous to friend and stranger 
alike, anxious to do whatever 
he can in every situation to 
make life pleasant. 

He is embarrassed if he causes 
any discomfort, chagrined 
if he is guilty of the slightest 
oversight, displeased by any 
display of selfishness. 

He is the finely polished, 
carefully nurtured product of all 
man's centuries of learning 
to live together. 

Then suddenly he becomes a 

He continues to feel like the 
same person — possibly feels 
that he has acquired some 
indefinable additional suavity- — 
but begins to act like a 
totally different being. 

His pleasures in smoking, or 
his desire or his need to 
smoke — or any combination of 
the three — take precedence over 
any consideration or restraint 
that has been a part of 
his culture to that time. 

It justifies his sitting at a 
table with a cigarette burning in 
his hand even though the 
smoke may be drifting up 
steadily into the face of a friend 
who does not smoke. 

It makes it perfectly permissible 

for him to make the air 

in a room foul and unpleasant, 

even though he may be the 

only one smoking in a group of 

people. The fact that 

the clothes of all the others 

would have remained fresh 

but for his smoking 

concerns him not in the least. 

He is a smoker. It doesn't 

occur to him that his 

desire to smoke in any situation 

should be regarded as 


His pleasure in smoking gives 
him complete freedom to 
disregard all other occupants in 
an automobile, a bus, or a 
plane. Before he became a 
smoker, he would have 
wanted to be considerate of 
even one or two persons in 
a crowd. As a smoker, especially 
if there are other smokers 
present, he is perfectly 
willing to forget about the 
few people around him who find 
smoke-saturated air less 
pleasant than clean air. 

He will go on, day after day, 
year after year, subjecting those 
around him in the office 
where he works to breathing 
stale, smoky air, to wearing home 
each day clothes permeated 
by the same distasteful 
odor. Yes, probably some of 
the others smoke, too. But 
there was a time when he 
would have taken pride in being 
thoughtful of those who 
don't. His attitude now: If they 
don't like it, why don't 
they get a job where no one 

smokes? How complete 
his change has been! 

If he is a salesman, he knows 
better than to blow smoke 
in your face, of course. But 
as he speaks and his breath 
reaches you, you think it 
might be less unpleasant if 
it were smoke. 

If the smoker were to give a 
moment's clear thought, he 
would realize that it is quite 
foolish to ask a nonsmoker 
if he minds his having a 
smoke. If the nonsmoker liked 
smoke and its effects, he 
would be a smoker. The 
reassurance given the smoker 
and the encouragement to 
go ahead is never anything more 
than a courteous acquiescence 
to another unpleasant interlude. 

Yes, a human being undergoes 
a strange metamorphosis 
when he becomes a smoker. 
He points accusingly at 
nonsmokers; calls them 
self-righteous, intolerant, 
selfish; has convinced 
himself that they (who are 
doing nothing to foul 
the air he breathes, to saturate 
his clothes with a stale, 
smoky odor, to make him 
personally uncomfortable) are 
at fault. He is two people — 
one with a rich background in 
courtesy and consideration, 
the other content to indulge his 
desire to smoke with complete 
disregard for others. 

October 1968 


On Scene with the Editors 


PAPEETE, TAHITI . . . Elder 
Scott Anderson and Elder Russell 
Osguthorpe staged Elaine Can- 
non's Seminar for Sallies in 
French, with Polynesian youth 
coming from the outer islands to 
learn lessons in grooming, be- 
havior, and attitude. Simplet and 
Simplette showed how not to do 
things. Youth from Tubuai gave 
a concert recitation of the "Code 
of Living," which is a pledge to 
keep the Word of Wisdom. Presi- 
dent Karl M. Richards and Elder 

Steven Bunderson, mission MIA 
superintendent, conducted special 
meetings that rounded out a lively 
time of skits, workshops, games, 
and dancing. Can you imagine 
arriving a week before the con- 
ference and staying for weeks 
after (finding jobs to earn money 
to live in the interim) because the 
boats to the islands were so ir- 
regular? The Tubuai youth had 
to plan on earning extra money 
to keep them the extra time, but 
what a special experience it was. 

lene Gay Mulhausen is a 14-year- 
old with stars in her eyes and 
money in her pocket, thanks to a 
writing talent. She won first prize 
in the National Scholastic Writing 
Contest. First place in the whole 
United States for this fine Mormon 
girl is truly something to praise. 
She is the daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Roy P. Mulhausen. 

MIA festival proved to be a won- 
derful way for Church members 
coming from far places to make 
friends. Pictured on the scene are 
Elders Jorgensen and Messury, 
Anna Vargas, and Fabio Clavijo, 
Bogota, Colombia, South America. 


Era of Youth 

. . . Dedicated service and the en- 
thusiasm of stake leaders were 
qualities that prompted M Men 
and Gleaners to turn the tables 
and surprise stake presidency, 
MIA executives, and Raymond J. 

Pace, Regional Representative of 
the Twelve, with a party that took 
the form of a Hawaiian luau. 
Everyone came in costume and re- 
ceived a lei and a supper of au- 
thentic native food. Ken Peterson 
was in charge of promotion. 


'It's really 

fun to do genealogy work," said 
Gary Pratt, secretary of the priests 
quorum of Boise 11th Ward. A 
genealogical workshop for the 
ward youth, called "Genealogy 
FUNshop Class," was held each 
Sunday night following sacrament 
meeting. Seventy-two youths at- 
tended and 69 received certificates 

of graduation when the course was 
over. Bishop Ted C. Peck said, 
"The class has fostered greater 
spirituality in youth than any other 
program we have sponsored in a 
long while." Pictured: Gary Pratt, 
Sherma Clark, Jolene Warnick, 
Kay Ridgeway, Kathleen Rouse, 
Craig Saunders, Jolene Dayton, 
Lillian Closner, Dennis Lind. 

October 1968 


WASHINGTON, D. C. . . . "Free- 
dom Through Service" was the 
theme of a special three-day con- 
ference for servicemen and M Men 
and Gleaners in the Nation's 
Capitol. They came from as far 
north as Boston, Massachusetts, 

and as far south as Richmond, 
Virginia, for a variety of inspiring 
and entertaining activities, includ- 
ing a commemorative service for 
those who have served and died 
in defense of freedom. The pro- 
gram also included a tour of 

battlefields in Gettysburg, a 
dinner-dance, and a sunrise ser- 
vice. Speakers included Elder 
Boyd K. Packer, Assistant to the 
Council of the Twelve, Brig. Gen- 
eral Spencer Hunn, and Lt. Col. 
Allen C. Rozsa, Vietnam hero. 

. . . Over 300 students and their 
leaders streamed into Wellington, 
New Zealand, for a memorable 
weekend. Commencing with a 
beach cook-out, the program in- 
cluded a testimony meeting, talent 
shows, instructions in charm, 
karate lessons, concert by a 
celebrated pianist, miniature Olym- 
pics, dinner-dance, and a spiritual 
meeting. William Campbell is 
president of the Wellington Stake. 


Era of Youth 

LANDS . . . Douglas Kehele Apo 
has been awarded an honor merit 
appointment to the United States 
Military Academy at West Point. 
He received the highest honors in 
scholarship ever to be earned from 
the Kamehameha Schools Associa- 
tion of Maui. He has won the top 
ratings of ROTC, and was an ex- 
change student to Saratoga High 
School, Saratoga, California. 

SANTIAGO, CHILE . . . South 
Americans in the Santiago region 
have enjoyed meeting a get-around 
girl named Renate Fassman. She's 
a 17-year-old Mormon who was 
born in East Germany and moved 
to America, where she has been 
YWMIA secretary in New York. 
She has spent the past few months 
in Chile as an exchange student, 
doing her own kind of public re- 
lations for brotherhood between 

Traveling from Henefer, Utah, to 
the Salt Lake Valley, pushing and 
pulling handcarts just as the orig- 
inal pioneers did, was a real-life 
adventure for MIA girls from Long 

Beach, California. It was a week- 
long camp-out and a choice experi- 
ence for all. Brief stops where 
dramatic pioneer history happened 
heightened the girls' appreciation 
of their brave ancestors. 

MOSCOW, IDAHO . . . The Na- 
tional Association for Retarded 
Children sponsors a youth group 
composed of some 300 young stu- 
dents in high schools in the state 
of Idaho. Two LDS girls were 
elected to office in the statewide 
organizational meetings. They are 
Bonnie Madsen of Idaho Falls, a 
freshman at Ricks College, and 
Diane Jean Cardwell of Twin 
Falls, a junior high school student 
who enjoys music and drama. 


December 31,1968 

October 1968 




I Am Ready for You 

By Marion D. Hanks 

• He wasn't sure where the idea had come from, but somehow the young man felt 
that if he could be alone in God's great outdoors and try to talk to his Heavenly Father, 
it would help. That's why he found himself standing in the grove of trees that early 
morning, looking up and saying what he did. His earthly father was not religiously 
inclined, and his mother had not forced the situation. The family therefore had had 
little formal religious experience or instruction, but the idea of praying for help had 
come to him, and he was trying. 

His troubles were not abnormal, but they were serious. He had quit school and 
was associating with a group of companions who didn't really represent the kind of 
man he wanted to be. His work was unpromising, his habits questionable, and his 
future becoming more a concern to him daily. He really felt he needed some help, and 
he didn't know where to turn. Thus the idea of praying had occurred to him, and he 
had set out to do it, going outside his small western town to a nearby wooded area. 

As he stood there that morning, the young man looked up and talked to the Lord. 
His message was simple, but to hear it as he described it several years later on an air- 
plane flying over the forests of Vietnam was electrifying. 

"I just looked up," he explained softly, "and said to the Lord: 'God, I am ready 
for you if you are ready for me.' " 

There was no startling response, oral or visual. He saw nothing and heard no 
voice. There was only the utter quiet of the breezeless morning and the beating of his 
own heart. Yet he went away knowing that he had been heard, somehow deeply 
assured that the answer would be forthcoming. 

When he sat behind the bus driver on his way to town that morning, he got the 
first phase of his answer. The man said to him, "Son, I believe you are looking for 
something that I can help you find." Thus started the conversation that ultimately 
resulted in the young man's acceptance of Jesus Christ and his restored Church, and 
that changed his life completely. 

The corporal had discovered, when he was a 16-year-old boy, that God was ready for 
him. From that moment life had taken on a great meaning that activated him and 
exuded from him in goodness and strength as he walked and worked with humble 
dignity among his fellows. o 

56 Era of Youth 

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Today's Family 

By Florence B. Pinnock 

Your Very OwnVote 

• Political arguments take place on 
every level of human living. A six- 
year-old boy was heard to say, 
"Only daddies vote; mothers stay 
home and fix breakfast." Too many 
women do just this. It is easier to 
remain at home and prepare break- 
fast and forget about voting than 
to take a few minutes to go to the 

Voting hours differ from state 
to state, but in most states there 
are at least 12 hours in which to 
vote, and mothers need not take 
housekeeping so seriously that they 
can't find time to vote. Women 
must take local, state, and federal 
housekeeping seriously if this world 
is to be cleaned up. Politics is not 
just a man's world; it needs a 
woman's heart, and a mother must 
care about who is to run her town 
and her country. And since a 
child's future is tied up in his par- 
ents' vote, it is important that both 
father and mother go to the polls. 

There can be a strong feminine 
influence in politics if each woman 
cares enough to vote. All women 
don't vote the same, any more than 
men do. However, it is possible 
for a woman to study the issues, 
draw her own conclusions, and 
then vote at the polls, where she 
can cast her vote thoughtfully and 
feel involved and alive. America 

has potentially more women voters 
than men, but even in an important 
presidential year many more men 
than women actually vote. It is up 
to women to correct this situation. 

Women have a great deal to 
gain by voting. The domestic 
issues in any election involve the 
family, home, health, welfare, and 
schools. A mother wants good, 
moral men to make and enforce 
the laws. She wants a senator, a 
governor, a mayor who believe in 
the sanctity of the home. She 
wants statesmen— not politicians— 
to decide the many vital issues in 
this disturbed world. She wants 
wise, selfless men to run her town 
and her country. Women must be- 
come involved if there is to be 

It is a sobering thought that 
nearly every citizen of the United 
States over 21 years of age has his 
very own vote. Consider the reac- 
tion, however, if the franchise were 
to be taken from women: How 
would they feel if in this evening's 
paper there was an edict that no 
woman would be allowed to vote 
this year? All would be enraged. 
Yet year after year many of them 
never bother to exercise their 

Women gathered together in 
1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, 

for the first Woman's Rights Con- 
vention, and a most daring proposi- 
tion came from it: "It is the duty 
of the women of this country to 
secure to themselves their sacred 
right to the election franchise." 
Then in 1869, after the Civil War, 
the women again banded together, 
and both the National Woman 
Suffrage Association and the 
American Woman Suffrage Asso- 
ciation were founded. 

Six years later, in 1875, Susan 
B. Anthony drew up the amend- 
ment: "The right of citizens of the 
United States to vote shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United 
States or by any State on account 
of sex." This is the exact wording 
of the Nineteenth Amendment as 
it was finally added to the Con- 
stitution 45 years later. It was in 
January 1918 that the House passed 
the woman suffrage amendment 
with just one vote. over the required 
two-thirds. It took until June 4, 
1919, for the Senate to pass this 
amendment. Before that time only 
15 states offered full suffrage. 

The West can be proud of its 
leadership in the suffrage move- 
ment. Wyoming took the lead in 
1869, and 14 states followed: Colo- 
rado, 1893; Idaho, 1896; Utah, 1896; 
Washington, 1910; California, 1911; 
Kansas, 1912; Oregon, 1912; Ari- 


Improvement Era 

zona, 1912; Montana, 1914; Nevada, 
1914; New York, 1917; Michigan, 
1918; Oklahoma, 1918; and South 
Dakota, 1918. 

Forty-eight years ago, on August 
26, 1920, all women citizens of the 
United States were given the privi- 
lege to vote. Today, almost half a 
century later, many women have 
fallen asleep to their duty. An 
alarm clock should be set for this 
November in every home. It is 
time to manifest our gratefulness 
to the early women suffrage leaders 
and go to the polls. 

Politics is not an activity to run 
away from: the young, the middle 
aged, and the elderly should all be 
involved. I know of one 82-year- 
old woman who at election time 
inquired what she could do to help 
and found herself phoning con- 
stituents and stuffing envelopes 
for the candidate of her choice. 
On election day she walked three 
blocks down a hill to vote, and 
afterwards climbed back to her 
home. It was her last public act. 
She truly involved herself to the 

Never have the stakes been so 
high and the dangers so great. If 
tomorrow is to be good, women all 
over this world must involve them- 
selves in choosing the right leaders 


October is the storehouse of the 
harvest. Fresh grains, vegetables, 
and fruits are in abundance, and 
our tables can be laden with vita- 
mins and minerals. For nutrition 
and also for taste, use quantities of 
fresh vegetables and fruits. 

Celery can be baked, and in the 
doing a most delectable dish may 
be produced. Onions take on a 
new dress in a cheese pie, and 
mashed potatoes become a delight 
as potato puffs. A tangy, appetiz- 
ing relish is made of cucumbers in 
sour cream, and cabbage reaches 
gourmet heights in buttermilk cole- 

slaw. Eggplant is a versatile fall 
vegetable. It can be combined 
with other vegetables, meat, cheese, 
and fish to add nutriment to the 
dinner table. Corn, peppers, squash, 
turnips, and on and on— there is an 
endless parade of vegetables, all 
body-building, delicious products 
of autumn. Try converting all this 
richness into appetizing menus for 
your family. Thirty-one days has 
October in which to experiment 
with at least 31 different vegetable 

Celery Casserole 

(10 servings) 

4 heaping cups chopped celery 
1 cup sliced mushrooms 
1 can water chestnuts, sliced 
1 can pimientos 

1 can undiluted cream of chicken 
y 3 cup slivered almonds, toasted in 

y 2 cup bread crumbs 

Steam the celery in a little salted water 
until crisply tender. Drain and place in 
buttered casserole. Add the mush- 
rooms, pimiento, and water chestnuts 
to the chicken soup. Pour over the 
celery and sprinkle the top with the 
bread crumbs and almonds mixed to- 
gether. Bake at 350° F. until bubbly 
and golden brown. 

Ellis's Chicken-Rice Casserole 

(8 servings) 

1 pound Polish sausage 

1 cup rice, raw 

1 can chicken soup with rice 
Y 2 cup green pepper, chopped 

1 small onion, Chopped 

1 cup celery, diced 

4 cups water 
Salt and pepper to taste 
Cut frozen Polish sausage into slices. 
Brown and drain of all grease. Com- 
bine all ingredients and put in casserole. 
Cover and bake in a 375° F. oven for 
about 45 minutes or until rice is tender. 
(Add more water if needed.) Top with 
crushed potato chips and brown with 
casserole uncovered. 

Baked Eggplant 

(6 servings) 

1 eggplant, peeled and cubed 

1 to iy 2 pounds ground beef 

y 2 green pepper, chopped 

1 large onion, chopped 
1% cups canned tomatoes 

y 2 teaspoon paprika 

2 tablespoons minced parsley 
Salt and pepper to taste 

iy 2 cups buttered bread crumbs 

Cook the eggplant in boiling salted 
water until just tender. Brown meat, 
add onion and green pepper, and cook 
until limp but not brown. Drain cooked 
eggplant; combine all ingredients ex- 
cept bread crumbs in a buttered cas- 
serole. Top with buttered crumbs and 
sprinkle lightly with Parmesan cheese. 
Bake at 350° F. for 30 minutes. 

Cheese Potato Puffs 

3 cups potato flakes 

% cup shredded Cheddar cheese 
Dash of cayenne pepper 
Salt to taste 

1 egg, slightly beaten 
V4 cup melted butter 

Prepare 4 servings mashed potatoes as 
directed on package, decreasing water 
to 1 cup. Stir in cheese and season- 
ings. Form into 50 balls. Dip in egg, 
then in remaining dry potato flakes 
(about 1 cup). Saute in butter until 
golden brown. Serve hot. 

Dilly Cauliflower 

(6 servings) 

1 medium cauliflower 
1 tablespoon butter 
1 cup sour cream 
1 teaspoon dill seed 

Separate cauliflower into flowerets; 
place in a small amount of boiling water 
and cook until crisply tender. Melt 
butter; add sour cream and dill seed. 
Cook until hot, but do not boil. Add 
cauliflower just before serving. Sprinkle 
with paprika. 

Cucumbers in Sour Cream 

2 cups sliced and peeled cucumbers 
y 2 teaspoon salt 

y 2 cup sour cream 

2 teaspoons vinegar 
y 2 teaspoon sugar 

2 teaspoons instant minced onion 
y 2 teaspoon dill weed 
Dash cayenne pepper 
Cracked black pepper 

Place cucumber slices in bowl; sprinkle 
with salt and cover with cold water. 
Refrigerate 30 minutes; drain well. 
Combine with remaining ingredients 
and toss lightly. Chill at least 1 hour 
before serving. 

Buttermilk Coleslaw 

(6 servings) 

y 2 cup buttermilk 

y 2 cup mayonnaise 

1 tablespoon vinegar 

y 2 teaspoon prepared mustard 

1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 

1 teaspoon celery seed 

y 2 teaspoon salt 

y 2 teaspoon paprika 

4 cups shredded cabbage 

Mix all ingredients together and toss 
lightly. Chill and serve. O 

October 1968 



So xx 

of 1912 

Part Three 

Return of the Mountain Men 

By Karl E. Young 

Illustrated by Bill Whitaker 

• After two weeks away from their homes, away two small groups from the mountain colonies of 

from their routines, and away from everything with Garcia and Pacheco decided to attempt probing trips 

which they were familiar, several men from the back into the home territory to reconnoiter. They 

colonies in the lower valleys went back to Colonia felt that they must learn what had happened since 

Juarez and Colonia Dublan. Then a short time later they left in order to arrive at sound decisions as to 


Improvement Era 

. . . a wagon, piled high with furniture, coming down the road 
from. , .Colonia Pacheco 

what should be their next move from El Paso. 

The organization of these two small groups was 
not entirely spontaneous. John T. Whetten, the bishop 
of Garcia Ward, was getting on in years and felt 
too old to lead such a trip back himself. But he 
appointed his first counselor, Lester B. Farnsworth, 
as leader of the Garcia party and designated a hand- 
ful of men to accompany him. On August 21, there- 
fore, Farnsworth, John C. Beecroft, J. B. Darton, Ernest 
Nielsen, and Charles Whetten left El Paso on the 
train for Colonia Juarez. 

Colonia Juarez was not a ghost town. Bishop 
Joseph C. Bentley had left his faithful Mexican 
helper, Cornelio Reyes, in charge of his home and 
property when he departed, and other citizens had 
likewise appointed local Mexicans to look after their 
places. Moreover, L. H. Spilsbury, a shrewd and 
self-reliant man, had stayed behind when all the 
men slipped out of town in the night to answer the 
call of President Romney. 

The reconnoitering committee from Garcia spent 
two days looking over Colonia Juarez and were con- 
siderably cheered by the fact that much less than they 
had anticipated had been disturbed in that com- 
munity. Of course, it was stripped of riding animals, 
but even so, a friendly Mexican lent them a small 
pony, which had been passed up by rebel soldiers 
because it had a sore back. With this creature to 
carry a little bedding, which they were able to rake 
up, and a few provisions, the five men struck out 
for Garcia, 35 miles away in the mountains. 

By nightfall of August 24 the group had reached 
the top of the San Diego Canyon, where they camped, 
and then the next day they walked on" to the small 
ranch of Vincentio Lopez at Strawberry. Here they 
picked up a mule that belonged to John Beecroft. 
The travelers now had a team and joyfully hitched 
the little horse and mule together, being now able 
to ride. Turning the point at the junction of Straw- 
berry and Soldier canyons, they saw six armed Mexi- 
cans run behind the bank of the creek. The Mexicans, 
however, soon held up a white flag. They proved to 
be a group of rebels under the leadership of Benigno 
Tarin, who claimed that they were going down to 
Pearson to seek amnesty at the hands of General Jose 
de la Luz Blanco, who was in command of the federal 

A short distance farther on, in Hop Valley, they 
saw a wagon, piled high with furniture, coming down 
the road from the direction of Colonia Pacheco. Al- 
most immediately the wagon turned off the road 
toward a low Mexican house up against the hill. The 
driver, a Mexican, climbed down off his load and 
hurried toward the house, calling to those inside. 
Before he had reached the door, a woman came out, 
carrying a cartridge belt with a pistol hanging in a 
holster. The Mexican walked on into the house, 
buckling the gun around his waist as he went. The 
Garcia boys exchanged glances. No one needed to 
tell them that this was a moocher who had been 
raiding homes over in the Mormon colony. 

"Pull up," said Farnsworth. "We'll just engage him 
in a little conversation." 

They sat in their little rig while Farnsworth called 
two or three times in a friendly tone of voice. At last 
the Mexican came to the door and asked what they 

"We've been out of town for a short while," said 
Farnsworth, "and we are just coming back to check 
and see that everything is all right. We hope that 
you people have not been disturbed by rebels around 

"No, we haven't been disturbed." 

"Good. It would be a shame to have our peaceful 
way of life interrupted way off here in the mountains. 
By the way, where did you get the furniture? Did that 
come from Pacheco?" 

"Yes, it came from there. I thought the people had 
all gone away for good and were not coming back." 

"Well, I can see how you might have come to that 
conclusion. But we are all coming back, and I would 
like to have you tell all the Mexican neighbors that 
our intention is to return soon, if you will, please. 
Then we would like all our things back that have been 
borrowed. Adios, amigo." 

As the men drove on, they knew that they would 
never see a stick of furniture again once it had been 
carried off by looters. But if they could help even 
in a small way to prevent further looting, they 
intended to do so. Right now, however, it began to 
rain, and they crouched in their buckboard, eagerly 
awaiting the end of their journey at Garcia. By the 
time they reached the town, they were soaked and 
cold. It was a relief to get out of the rig and go take 

October 1968 


. , .a herd of pigs came 

scrambling out of the front door f 
grunting and squealing 

a quick look inside houses and around yards as they 
worked up toward the middle of the community. 

At first they saw no one nor any sign of life. But 
presently Charles Whetten spotted some horses stand- 
ing around the house of Aunt Lizzie MacDonald. 

"Look," he said. "We won't have to go afoot much 
longer now, boys. There is a bunch of loose horses. A 
couple of us can gather them in while the rest of 
you make camp." 

"Good idea," Nielsen said, jumping down over the 
wheel. "Come on. I'll go help you catch them. Be- 
sides, I've got the keys to Aunt Lizzie's house, and 
I'd like to have a look-see before we go into camp." 

But Farns worth called to him: "Ern, come back a 
minute, will you? I have a feeling that it would not 
be wise to go in there right now. The horses might 
mean that someone is already in the house. Let's make 
camp first and look around a bit before we do that." 

Nielsen climbed back into the buckboard, and they 
proceeded on to the Richard Farnsworth home, a 
sturdy adobe building near the center of town, where 
they unloaded their scant supplies and determined 
to spend the night. After they had made a fire and 
started to prepare a meal, someone noticed that there 
was now a light in the MacDonald house. 

"You had the right hunch about that, Lester," said 
Ernest. "I'm glad that I didn't try to go in there." 

"I had a feeling about it," answered Farnsworth. 
"Besides, who wants to go around stirring things up 
on a mean, wet night like this, even if they are in our 
own people's houses? We wouldn't want to turn 
them out in the rain, but they might get pretty ugly 
if they got the impression that we did. We can in- 
vestigate the town tomorrow, and then go over and 
see who is there." 

Next morning they got up early and made a fire 
and heated some water. It was not hard to get up, 
because there had been no beds and very scant 
bedding. As soon as the sun came up, they went out- 
side to stand around in the sunshine and get warm 
and look the town over. A short time later they saw 
a Mexican come out of Aunt Lizzie's house and stand 
in the corner with his sarape wrapped around him. 

"It looks like our guest was chilly, too," said Ernest. 

"Yes," answered Farnsworth. "What do you say if 
we go over there now and try to make friends with 
him? We'll leave these other fellows here at the house 
to hold the fort while we walk over and try to be 

Improvement Era 

peacemakers. Let's see what we can do." elbow and looked at them and then got out of his 

The MacDonald house was about two and a half blankets and followed Farnsworth and Nielsen as 

blocks distant, and as the men walked toward it, they they stepped over the sleeping forms or walked 

had a good opportunity to look the Mexican over rather around them in the attempt to have a look in all of 

carefully. He seemed to be a very large man. the rooms of the house. It was bare of furniture. 

"I hope he doesn't start any ruckus," said Ernest. Nothing was left that had made it habitable. As well 

"I don't much like the looks of those big ones." as the observers could judge, there were three or four 

Lester smiled. "The bigger they come—" men and two women lying on the floor in the various 

"Yes, I know— the harder they fall." rooms. 

But Nielsen knew that Farnsworth was thinking The man from outside and the one that arose inside 

of anything but fighting. He was figuring out how and followed close behind the two visitors everywhere 

to break the ice with this hombre. He wanted to make they went kept uncomfortably near them, so close that 

sure that the man would realize that they were not when Farnsworth occasionally took a glance back 

looking for a scrap but wanted to make friends. That over his shoulder, he found himself staring straight 

was why he was walking in this leisurely, sauntering into the black eyes of the big man, eyes that neither 

fashion, as though he were out for a stroll, with blinked nor wavered. Lester could see nothing 

nothing on his mind but enjoying the brilliant morning friendly in them, and therefore the visit was soon 

sunshine. over. The two Mormons said, "All right, thanks for 

"Good morning. Beautiful day after the rain, isn't showing us around," taking pains to be polite and to 

it?" said Farnsworth, as they drew near the Mexican', avoid any show of displeasure at what they had 

The latter did not want to acknowledge them. He said found. Then as they stepped outside, where there 

no more than he had to, muttering a surly "Buenos was breathing space and elbowroom, Farnsworth tried 

dias." once more to make his position clear, one of owner- 

"Senor, I do not have the pleasure of knowing your ship and yet of friendliness, 

name, but mine is Farnsworth, and this is Mr. Nielsen, "Now this house belongs to our people, but we are 

my brother-in-law. We live in this town. That is my not going to disturb you here. We have just come 

brother's house which we just left before coming over up to look around and see how things are. We will 

this way. We stayed there last night. My house is up be in the town for a few days looking over the houses 

the road just a piece. I ran that store in the lumber and fields and doing a little work. And we'll be seeing 

building over yonder until about three weeks ago. each other around. So, adios, amigos." 

And this house is Aunt Elizabeth MacDonald's. Mr. Then he and Nielsen turned and walked away. 

Nielsen here is supposed to be looking after it. He For the next two or three days the men looked into 

has the keys to it. houses in town, visited the fields to see what shape 

"We have come back to take a look around the they were in, mended fences that had been torn down, 

town and see how things are going. Our people sent and got cattle out of the corn patches. From the very 

us from El Paso because the homes are ours and we first, they visited the cache that Farnsworth and 

wanted to find out what condition they are in. So we Bishop Whetten had made before leaving Garcia. This 

would like your permission to enter this house and Cache was especially useful to them now. 

look around a little." Before the crisis had arisen in the colonies, Bishop 

This polite request for permission to enter one of the John T. Whetten and Lester Farnsworth had been 

colonists' own houses must have set the Mexican back operating a sawmill and a store together. When they 

a few pegs, for he mumbled "Si," and went over and learned that the rebels were beginning to cut the 

opened the door for Farnsworth and Nielsen. Then railroad lines, they bought up supplies in anticipation 

he stood back and waited for them to go in. They of shortages. They put all of their money into stocks 

did not know what to expect inside, feeling certain and had the shelves full when the trouble broke, 

there would be more Mexicans indoors, but not know- Feeling certain that the rebels would strip their store 

ing what their attitude would be. They wished that while they were gone, Farnsworth persuaded some of 

this surly big fellow would precede them and make the men to help him haul goods off and make a 

known who they were and what their purpose was in cache. 

visiting the house. But they were obliged to enter The site they selected was in a thick grove of trees 

ahead of him. above Hiram Cluff's place at Garcia. The trees grew 

Several Mexicans were lying on the floor asleep. so very thick here that a man could scarcely get 

They were rolled up in their blankets and did not stir through them, and in the middle of the grove was a 

at the intrusion. One man, however, leaned on his space of about fourteen feet where a round, smooth 

October 1968 63 

rock pushed up a few inches above the ground. On this exploring the houses for food, had found these soft 

rock they deposited sacks of flour, sugar, rice, beans, piles of crushed feathers to sleep in. 

and other staples until they had a considerable store During their inspection of the town the men dis- 

of food there. It took a lot of grunting and sweating covered, much to their surprise and disappointment, 

to get the sacks in, as it was necessary to crawl through that the dam that they had laboriously built for their 

the trees and snake the sacks in on the ground after reservoir up the creek had washed away. They could 

them. The growth was so dense that no large hardly believe their eyes, as the structure had been 

animal could possibly get in, and Farnsworth worked soundly and sturdily designed and executed. Later, a 

a big, heavy canvas through, with which he covered friendly Mexican whispered that he had heard some 

the whole lot. His helpers also brought large stones rebelistas boasting that they had blown the dam with 

in to lay on the edges of the canvas and keep small dynamite. In any case, its loss meant hard times during 

animals out. The canvas shed the rains, and the whole periods of drought until the people could put in an- 

cache was in excellent condition when the five men other one. 

returned to replenish their low supply of food. The inspection also revealed that other small groups 

Not only, then, did the colonists have the food they of Mexicans had lived or were living in various houses 

needed while they stayed in Garcia, taking note of around the community, but the colonists did not dis- 

the depredations that had occurred and scouting turb these people, knowing that they themselves would 

through the surrounding hills to estimate the number be gone in a day or two and that it would be wiser 

of cattle still running on the familiar range, but they not to leave any angry natives in the vicinity when 

also had small amounts of flour, beans, rice, and sugar they departed. 

with which they wooed the friendship of the Mexi- On August 30 the group sent Charles Whetten and 
cans in Aunt Elizabeth's house. These Mexicans Ernest Nielsen over to Colonia Pacheco to learn what 
naturally supposed that the men had brought the food the Pacheco men had discovered on their arrival at 
up with them, though how that scrawny team could that town. This group had gone independently to 
have brought up such a quantity of food they prob- their own colony on a similar mission. The two men 
ably never paused to figure out. But there was more learned, however, from an aged Mexican in the ham- 
food than the five men needed, and if the cache let of Corrales that the Pacheco boys had left in fear 
should remain undiscovered by Mexicans until an- of their lives, because a band of rebels who had been 
other party could return from El Paso, perhaps there passing through were now over at Gavilan and were 
would be enough with which to pay these Mexicans talking about coming over that night to search out the 
for help in such a project as gathering cattle. colonists who, they claimed, had been responsible for 

In visiting the houses on the first full day in town, the death of the Mexican that had been killed in the 

Lester had suffered a shock as he entered his own unfortunate fight with Joshua Stevens, 

yard. The front door of the house was swinging open, In spite of this warning, the two men visited the 

as were the doors of almost every house in the vil- town and found it in a shocking state, much worse 

lage. While walking up the gravel path toward his than Garcia. Large pieces of beef and pork lay 

doorway, Farnsworth must have made a noise that rotting in the houses and dooryards, and dead animals 

could be heard inside the house, for suddenly he was lay in the streets and fields. The homes were in a 

met by a herd of pigs that came scrambling out of terrible condition. Books and papers had been torn 

the front door, grunting and squealing, and looking up and thrown about, some of them partly burned, 

like nothing he had ever seen before. They were Rag carpet balls, which thrifty housewives had sewn 

covered all over with feathers, from hams to chops, together to be woven into carpets, were strung all 

Feathers were sticking out of their ears, clinging to over the town. Fences and gates had been torn down 

their hooves, and bristling all over them, enough to to use for firewood, and holes gaped under trees in 

startle Farnsworth, who at first stepped out of the the backyards where the pilferers had dug for buried 

way, wondering if he had encountered some new valuables, such as dishes and keepsakes that the 

kind of wild animal. fleeing colonists had thought to hide and preserve. 

Upon entering the house, he soon discovered that Much property had been wantonly destroyed. No 

Mexican looters not only had taken all of the clothing, doubt the revolutionists had figured that if they made 

blankets, and quilts that had been left in the home, junk of enough of the gringos' possessions, the owners 

but had also slit open the feather ticks, which had would be discouraged from returning and homes would 

been left on the beds, dumping the feathers on the be available with many improvements and fenced 

floor and taking the ticking along to make shirts and fields, ready to be worked and harvested by native 

trousers and other articles of clothing. The pigs, hands. In fact, Pacheco seemed to have become a 

64 Improvement Era 

Without a word the three turned and quickly headed back upstream, 
not daring to look back. 

hangout for thieving bands, who posed as rebels and 
carried on their ruthless raids from there. 

The looks of the town gave support to what the old 
Mexican had told them, and Charles and Ernest rode 
back to Garcia with the gloomiest of reports. After 
talking the matter through thoroughly, the party de- 
cided that they would leave late that night, but that 
they would plan to return with a larger party to collect 
cattle for the relief of hard-pressed comrades out in 
El Paso. 

Consequently, at about an hour past midnight, with 
a gentle rain falling and the Mexicans of the town 
deep in sleep, the men slipped out and drove over to 
Hop Valley, about eight miles away. When they 
started to ford the creek, they found the water was 
much deeper than usual because of the heavy rains of 
the preceding days. Nielsen was driving and had 
Farnswortlr and Beecroft in the front seat with him. 
Whetten and Darton were sitting on everything the 
party owned in the open back of the rig. There were 
a roll of bedding with a canvas over it, a few per- 
sonal possessions, and a little food^to tide them over 
until they reached Colonia Juarez. 

But as they approached the steep bank on the far 
side of the creek, Nielsen found that the high water 
had cut deep into the soil and left a bank too tall for 
the horse and mule to climb over. At once everybody 
but Darton scrambled out on the tongue between 
the two animals and jumped to the bank. But already 
the buckboard was awash, and Darton, with his slow 
manner of talking, said, "Fellers, the bed's a-goin'." 
And he was right. The water was taking it in spite of 
all that he could do to save it. As he lost his hold 
on the bulky roll, the current tugged it fiercely away 
from him, and he growled, "Dang it, I told you so!" 
Then it was gone. 

The rain let up, and though there were low clouds, 
the moon was bright. Whenever it found a break in 
the clouds, the moonlight revealed the meadow and 
willows and the swift stream, with the bed bobbing 
along at a rapid pace. Without saying a word, three 
of the men on the bank began to run after it. A short 
distance below the ford, the creek made a wide bend, 
and here, where the water was shallow, Nielsen 
splashed right through, hoping to get ahead of the 
bedding and catch it if it came close to the bank 
beyond. The other two men, Farnsworth and Bee- 
croft, ran around the bend and thus fell some distance 

behind Nielsen. The bed missed the bank, and 
Nielsen continued running to keep abreast of it. 

Glancing back over his shoulder as he ran, to see if 
his friends were coming, Nielsen suddenly caught 
sight of a man lying on the ground. He had been 
sleeping, and was rising to a sitting position on his 
blankets. Then Nielsen saw many other figures 
scattered about on the ground near him. He had run 
into the middle of a rebel camp! He stopped and froze 
in his tracks as Farnsworth, running through the 
bushes behind him, called, "Can you see it?" 

"Shut up!" Nielsen hissed back at him. Then Farns- 
worth saw the rebel camp too. But by now Beecroft 
had come chugging into view behind Farnsworth, 
and he called, "Did you get it?" 

"Shut up!" whispered Farnsworth, and since Mexi- 
cans were beginning to sit up all around, Beecroft 
saw the movements and realized what had happened. 
Without a word the three turned and began to walk 
quietly and rapidly back up stream. Then they were 
walking faster, and then a little faster, and did not 
dare to look back. 

When they got back to the crossing, they found the 
team and buckboard out on the bank. The two men 
who had stayed had unhooked the horse and mule 
and had thus been able to lead them both out of the 
water. Then it had not been difficult for them to tie 
onto the tongue and pull the empty rig out after 
them. Now they had just finished hitching up again, 
and as soon as the men came running in with their 
panting report of a rebel camp just around the bend 
below, they all piled into the buckboard and whipped 
up for all the little beasts were worth. 

It was not necessary. No rebels had followed the 
runners, and the colonists soon came to the conclusion 
that the Mexicans had probably been as frightened as 
they were themselves. They must have thought that 
this was a Yankee raid and had fled in the opposite 
direction as precipitately as the Mormons. 

Without further mishap the five men reached 
Colonia Juarez, where Whetten and Nielsen, as the 
two youngest members of the party, stayed to help 
Joseph C. Bentley with his canning project, which he 
was trying to get underway in order to preserve some 
of the great quantities of ripe fruit that were going to 
waste. Farnsworth and the other two men went back 
to El Paso to report their findings to the proper 
authorities. O (To be continued) 

October 1968 


Elder William J. Critchlow Jr. 


• Elder William J. Critchlow, Jr.. 
often told gatherings of the Saints, 
"Happiness is a by-product of 
service." He knew whereof he 
spoke, for he himself was a happy 
man, and his spirit of joy in living 
radiated to all who knew him and 
who felt his influence. He had a 
perpetual twinkle, a ready word of 
encouragement for friend or stran- 
ger, a warm smile for all. 

To Elder Critchlow, happiness 
came from living fully the princi- 
ples of the gospel. In a general 
conference address some six months 
after he was called to be an As- 
sistant to the Council of the 
Twelve, he said: "I thought the 
people in my stake [South Ogden] 
were the best and the happiest 
people in the world. I still think 
so, but in my travels I have found 
thousands of people just like them. 

"These people have certain 
characteristics in common. Friend- 
liness is one of them; humility is 
another; the hospitality of their 
leaders is another which I have 
greatly enjoyed. But the outstand- 
ing characteristic, it seems to me, 
is happiness. Their countenances 
literally radiate happiness. They 
seem to have left all of their worries 
and troubles at home. They ob- 
viously came to conference to 
feast, spiritually, of course, and 
they seem to delight in paying 
their devotions. 

s 'They should be happy. They 
should be the happiest people in 
the world because they observe 
our Father's law of happiness." 

The source of happiness— service 
to man and God— was deeply 

ingrained in Elder Critchlow. 
Throughout his life he served 
others; it was not enough for him 
just to belong to an organization: 
he was a born leader, and positions 
of great responsibility were en- 
trusted to him. He threw his heart 
and energy and enthusiasm into 
every position: student body presi- 
dent at Weber State College, col- 
lege alumni president, business 
executive, hospital trustee, Scouting 
executive, Chamber of Commerce 
committee chairman, Lions Club 
president, and many others. 

But his first love was the Church 
of Christ (on one occasion he said 
from the Tabernacle pulpit: "Speak- 
ing for myself, I have accepted him 
as the Son of God"), and here 
again he served faithfully and well, 
magnifying each calling: as priest- 
hood organist at the age of 12, 
teacher in the priesthood quorums 
and auxiliaries, ward and stake 
MIA executive, ward Sunday 
School superintendent, stake high 
councilor, stake president, and 
General Authority. He bore fer- 
vent testimony and witness to mem- 
ber and nonmember alike as to the 

divinity of the Savior, the truth- 
fulness of the Book of Mormon, 
the divine mission of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith. 

In all his own actions and in 
his relationships with the Saints, 
Elder Critchlow was, as one friend 
characterized him, a "stickler for 
things that were right and proper." 
He didn't hesitate to call atten- 
tion to areas in which he felt the 
Saints, whether as members of his 
stake flock or as members of the 
Church in general, needed to be 
chastened. However, he did it 
with kindness and love, always 
exemplifying the spirit of the 
priesthood that he held so proudly: 
"Reproving betimes with sharpness, 
when moved upon by the Holy 
Ghost; and then showing forth 
afterwards an increase of love 
toward him whom thou hast re- 
proved, lest he esteem thee to be 
his enemy." (D&C 121:43.) 

A popular and gifted speaker, 
Elder Critchlow had a flair for 
drama, and his talks were full of 
stories that dramatically and ef- 
fectively made the principles of the 
gospel live. Young people particu- 
larly enjoyed hearing him speak, 
and it was not unusual in a stake 
conference for squirming children 
and restless teenagers to sit up and 
listen intently when his turn came 
to speak. 

Along with the gospel, Elder 
Critchlow's family ranked first in 
his life. At his funeral in the 
Ogden Tabernacle on September 
3, Bishop Lewis J. Wallace, a life- 
long friend, told how he would 
admonish each priesthood bearer 


Improvement Era 

who was being called to a position 
of leadership: "Your first obliga- 
tion is to your family— then to your 
calling." In setting apart mission- 
aries, he would tell them, "Write 
to your parents often— at least 
once a week— and tell them how 
much you love and appreciate 

These were admonitions he him- 
self took seriously. He and Sister 
Critchlow had a warm, loving, 
mutually respectful relationship 
that was immediately apparent to 
Saints all over the world, wherever 
she accompanied him on his many 
travels. He delighted in the suc- 
cesses and accomplishments of his 
two sons, his daughter, and his 
15 grandchildren. 

He loved all children, and he 
had a special way with them. One 
of the greatest tributes that could 
be paid to this great man came 
during his funeral service, when 
200 Primary children from the 
Weber Heights Stake, all dressed 
in white, sat quietly, reverently, 
and respectfully through a 90- 
minute service and then rose to 
sing one of his favorite songs, "I 
Am a Child of God." As their 
sweet voices softly chimed through 
the Tabernacle, one couldn't help 
feeling that here indeed was testi- 
mony to the words given in tribute 
to Elder Critchlow by President 
N. Eldon Tanner: "His life was his 
message to the world." O 

Highlights in Elder Critch- 

low's Life: 

August 21, 1892: Born in 
Brigham City, Utah, a 
son of William J. and 
Anna Gregerson Critchlow 

August 20, 1924: Married 
Anna Maria Taylor in 
the Salt Lake Temple 

December 7, 1941: Sus- 
tained as first president 
of the South Ogden 
Sta ke 

October 16, 1958: Set 
apart as an Assistant to 
the Council of the Twelve 

August 29, 1968: Died in 
Ogden, Utah, at the age 
of 76. 

October 1968 

Put the magic of 

Sugarplum Land 

in your meals 

suggests this 
easy to make 
Pumpkin Pie for 
a real family 
taste treat. 


3 egg yolks 


IV2 cups cooked or canned pumpkin 

Vz cup milk 

V2 tsp. salt 

Va tsp. ginger 

Vz tsp. cinnamon 

Vz tsp. nutmeg 

1 tablespoon unfavored gelatin 

(or 1 envelope) 
l A cup cold water 
3 stiffly beaten egg whites 
1 baked 9" or 10" pastry shell 
Beat egg whites and Vz cup sugar, and 
set aside. Beat egg yolks and Vz cup 
sugar until thick. Add pumpkin, milk, 
salt, and spices. Cook in double boiler 
until thick. Soften gelatin in cold water, 
stir into hot mixture. Fold in egg white 
mixture. Pour into baked, cooled pastry 
shell and chill. Top with whipping cream. 

Where is Sugarplum Land? It's all around you if you live where sugarbeets 
are grown. U and I Sugar sweetens the economy of these areas. 


Factories in Garland and West Jordan, Utah; 
near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Moses Lake and Toppenish, Washington. 


By Maureen D. Keeler 

Illustrated by Jeanne L'ndortt 

• Living richly and happily in the gospel framework 
presents a challenge to the single Latter-day Saint 
woman. Meeting that challenge with resilience, cre- 
ativity, and perspective can bring lasting satisfaction 
and peace of mind. The LDS woman of any age 
can turn months or years of waiting for a right eternal 
partner into a period of productive living and pre- 
paring, by learning to see life in its eternal perspec- 

tive, by using valuable years to develop personal 
resources, and most important, by learning concretely 
to give, love, and serve. She may, if she is willing, 
see her single years as a gift of time to be used wisely; 
thus, her life may be enriched by "creative waiting"— 
not impoverished by empty time -marking. 

Concern about marriage is both common and easily 
understandable in view of LDS teachings. The gospel 

offers its members and the world at large, as one of 
its most important teachings, a strong emphasis on 
the eternal benefits of family life. Because this won- 
derful principle is so frequently emphasized, many 
LDS girls reach maturity feeling that marriage is 
the only measure of their worth. As a result, some 
older single women may become understandably 
sensitive to constant reminders (eternal values nights, 
sacrament meeting addresses) that they are not 
achieving an important eternal goal. Perhaps the 
most consistent pressure upon older single men and 
women, and the most difficult to withstand, is the 
well-meaning but thoughtless advice of friends and 
relatives who do not seem to realize that most single 
people are keenly aware of their status and usually 
would be happy to change it. 

Nevertheless, despite these pressures and occasional 
reminders that they are "out of step," many LDS 
single women have developed the ability to respond 
to life joyfully and positively. By doing so, they 
translate their single years into meaningful contribu- 
tions to church, community, and fellowman. This 
they do by developing and relying on firm faith in 
God and by learning to look at marriage as an im- 
portant milestone that may be reached at almost any 
point on the endless path of eternal life. 

It is common in our society for women to reach 
maturity believing that being single is the greatest 
obstacle to achieving complete happiness. A promi- 
nent psychiatrist writes of college-age women: "The 
median age of girls when they marry is now about 
twenty and the preoccupation with marriage becomes 
fairly persistent when this age is past. . . . Today a 
young lady of twenty-one who is still single is apt to 
think of herself as an old maid." 1 

Thus, if a woman reaches her thirties or forties still 
unmarried, she often considers herself unattractive or 
undesirable. These feelings may lead to chronic dis- 
couragement with herself and with life in general. In 
experiencing this problem, some single women do not 
realize that succumbing completely to discouragement 
is, in a very real sense, denying God the power to 
answer prayers and to act in their lives. If a woman 
believes that even her Father in heaven cannot or 
will not help her, she has then replaced faith with 
doubt, for the two cannot exist simultaneously. Occa- 
sional periods of doubt are normal, but prolonged 
discouragement can seriously weaken faith. The 
antidote to such discouragement is unwavering belief 
that God cannot fail to answer righteous prayers. He 
may do so in his own time, but he cannot fail. This 

] Carl Binger, M.D., "The Pressures on College Girls Today," The 
Atlantic (February 1961). (Reprinted in A Reading Approach to 
College Writing with permission of Dr. Carl Binger and Appleton- 
Century-Crofts, Inc. ) 

"The real problem is not of being 
single, but of discovering .. .ways 
of single living." 

kind of faith is not easily acquired, but it can be 
cultivated like any skill by constant practice and 
application. The words of the Lord confirm his 

"Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall 
find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: 

"For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that 
seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be 

"Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask 
bread, will he give him a stone? 

"Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent? 

"If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts 
unto your children, how much more shall your Father 
which is in heaven give good things to them that 
ask him?" (Matt. 7:7-11.) 

The Lord will respond in his own time and in his 
own way to the righteous and divinely approved 
desire to marry— if not in this life, then certainly 
in the next. Therefore, faith must be accompanied 
by a long-range view— an eternal perspective of life, 
Such a view implies that finding a suitable eternal 
partner at 38 or 48 or 58 or not at all is no indi- 
cation of failure. It is merely a manifestation of 
the eternal principle of timing in a woman's life: 
"To every thing there is a season, and a time to every 
purpose under the heaven." (Ecc. 3:1.) The true 
worth of a life is measured not by the age at which 
a woman enters into marriage, or even if she doesn't 
marry at all, but by the ways in which she has blessed 
the lives of others. 

The real problem, then, is not one of being single, 
but of discovering and practicing successful ways of 
single living. John Milton in his famous poem "On 
His Blindness" reminded the world that "they also 
serve who only stand and wait." How that differs 
from the common phrase, "sit and wait"! "Standing" 
suggests rising to meet the challenge, readiness, alert 
and attentive living— not dull and non-productive 
existing. Single women who live happy and rewarding 

Maureen Derrick Keeler, instructor in English at Brig- 
ham Young University and member of the BYU Sec- 
ond Stake YWMIA presidency, wrote this article after 
sensing that many unmarrieds feel out of place — even 
guilty — in an environment that so strongly emphasizes 
marriage. A June 1968 bride, she reports she became 
"so engrossed in the subject that my engagement 
took me completely by surprise." 





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Improvement Era 

lives successfully meet their challenge in at least 
three ways: (1) They use their single years to de- 
velop talents and resources by becoming involved in 
life. (2) They cultivate warm, healthy relationships 
with others. (3) They find creative ways to give 
love and service outside the framework of marriage. 

Women who "wait creatively" understand well that 
life yields up its greatest rewards to those who be- 
come deeply involved in the Church, in their careers, 
in their education, or in any activity they undertake. 
They learn to use wisely the enviable resources that 
most single women enjoy, such as more time, greater 
personal freedom, greater mobility, and greater earn- 
ing power. This enhances their value as professional 
women, as Church members, and as future home- 
makers. They seek jobs that challenge and satisfy 
them, not jobs that are merely excuses for passing 
time. They live in compatible and attractive sur- 
roundings where they can put down roots rather 
than "camping" in first one area and then another. 
They fill their lives with traveling, reading new books, 
making new friendships, and gaining new experiences 
that widen their intellectual horizons and increase 
their knowledge of human nature. In short, they 
base their lives on the premise that marriage by itself 
cannot fill an empty life, but that a full, well-lived 
life can enrich a marriage. 

No woman who cultivates close friendships, among 
both married and single people, must be alone unless 
she wants to be. Single years may be either a time 
to build defensive walls against people or a time to 
make many new friends and to strengthen ties with 
old ones. The woman who makes the effort to build 
friendships is happier for having done so. For women 

who find it difficult to communicate with others 
easily and happily, the single years are an excellent 
time to solve the problem by seeking carefully chosen 
professional help. Making friends has major advan- 
tages for both the present and the future. Lessons 
learned in the give and take of social relations- 
compromise, consideration, sacrifice, outward (as op- 
posed to inward) focus— can be applied later in 
marriage. For the present, good friends, like good 
books and good music, can sustain, stimulate, and 
enrich life. 

Perhaps the most important skill that successful 
single women share is finding concrete ways to love 
and serve. They can work in many positions in the 
Church. They often choose full-time careers that 
require development of service. If they don't, they 
may pursue part-time or volunteer work in hospitals, 
senior citizens' organizations, or special education 
centers. Being single does not exempt them from 
sharing love with anyone. Opportunities for learning 
unselfish giving are as near as a family, friend, room- 
mate, or next-door neighbor, and there are few traits 
more valuable or important in a marriage. As her 
experience in loving and serving deepens, so does a 
woman's capacity to give and to live the gospel more 
fully. Thus, in a third important way, she is preparing 
herself for eternal married life. 

Perhaps the whole philosophy of creative waiting 
can best be summarized in this way: Life should be 
lived as though the journey were an end in itself. 
Successful single women do not wait to be the women 
they want to be. For them, fulfillment lies not in 
anxious waiting for the future, but in loving, giving, 
and living in the present. O 

Brushstrokes, October 
By Maureen Cannon 

Shiny apples, jack-o'-lanterns, icy cider, 

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Smell, and taste that's pure October. Overhead the 

Bluest ceiling, 
Paint-box bright! And underfoot the breathless, 

Children reeling 
In a technicolor leaf -land all ablaze! And 

Squeaking, squealing 
Their delight, they race and, tumble in a joy of 

Autumn's making, 
And a wreath of gardeners round 'em in October 

Raking, raking. . . . 

October 1968 


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Longtime Era 
Employee Dies 

• Norma Schofield, cashier and office 
manager of The Improvement Era for 
25 years, died on August 19. 

Whether accepting a subscription at 
the counter, aiding a teen-ager through 
her first day on her first job, or attend- 
ing to all the details of an Era Citation 
Dinner, her loving concern and quiet 
efficiency brought the feeling: "It's 
good to be here." 

Norma came to the Era upon the 
completion of her Spanish-American 
mission in the early 1940's. Thirsting 
for more activity among her Spanish- 
American amigos, she affiliated with 
the Mexican Branch in Salt Lake City 
and was soon working with the teen- 

At her funeral on August 22 in the 
Spanish-American Lucero Ward, Salt 
Lake City, one of those first teens, now 
grown tall in responsibility and true in 
the gospel, said: "Norma was more 
than a friend; she was our sister." 

Writing to her parents, brother, and 
sisters, Elder Richard L. Evans of the 
Council of the Twelve and editor of the 
Era said: "Your beloved Norma has 
been with us as a trusted staff mem- 
ber of the Era and the Church for 
these many years, always doing her 
share and much more. . . . We know 
of no lack of faithfulness of perfor- 
mance in her life, and have the assur- 
ance that Norma will be welcomed 
where she has gone, and receive from 
our Father the wonderful words, 'Well 
done, thou good and faithful servant.' " 

Others will certainly fill the void of 
Norma's leaving, and the work of the 
Era will proceed. But thousands will 
miss her. At times like these, earth 
is indeed poorer and heaven seems 
much richer, a little closer, and more 
desirable. O 

Improvement Era 

A New Look at the 

Pearl of Great Price 

By Dr. Hugh Nibley 

Part 5 

A Unique Document 

Scenes from the Grand Temple of Philae show various lion-couch ment. Critics have scoffed at Joseph Smith's declaration that 
drawings, informing us that not all such scenes depict embalm- Facsimile 1 is a sacrificial scene, not an embalming scene. 

• Hand or Wing? The earliest 
and latest scholarly critics of the 
facsimiles have insisted that the 
bird in Facsimile 1 should have a 
human head. 45 Though the bird's 
head, being on the edge of the 
papyrus, was broken off even be- 
fore it was mounted, enough of the 
neck fortunately remains to show 
that it never bore a human head. 
And so the original again comes to 
the rescue to refute the Approved 
School Solution. 

Another near miss has preserved 
just enough of "Abraham's" hands 
to show us that they were hands— 
both of them. This is a critical 
point on which Professor Parker's 
interpretation must stand or fall. 
He tells us that "the apparent upper 
hand is part of the wing of a sec- 
ond bird. . . ." In favor of such an 
interpretation is only the fact that 
two birds are represented in ap- 
proximately the positions indicated 
in a number of other drawings 

showing men on lion couches. Of 
course, if all lion-couch figures 
were accompanied by two birds, 
then we would be pretty well stuck 
with a second bird; but actually the 
two birds are the rare exception, 
one bird being the rule, though 
three are fairly common. 40 More to 
the point, in all documents obtain- 
able in which birds appear regard- 
less of their number, their wings are 
drawn according to the same artis- 
tic convention, exactly as the wings 

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on our Facsimile 1 have been 
drawn, and no wings are to be 
found done in the manner of Pro- 
fessor Parker's hypothetical second 

But if we are not required by 
statistics to supply a second bird, 
the same statistics are even less in 
favor of a second hand, which if it 
really exists makes our picture quite 
unique. So the issue is still in the 
balance until we take a closer look 
—then the wing disappears. 

1. First of all, the immediate 
proximity of a real bird to the 
imaginary one shows us clearly 
enough how this particular artist 
draws wings, and his method is in 
total agreement with all wing- 
drawing in those compositions 
which show hawks hovering over 
people's middles. Dr. Parker him- 
self tells us that the two birds in 
this particular picture are sisters, 
and indeed, they usually figure as 
identical twins. 47 Why then should 
they be drawn, as nowhere else, 
according to different conventions 
and as different types? The accom- 
panying illustrations will show how 
closely the two birds resemble each 
other when they appear together as 
a pair. 

the supine figure, as he does here, 
there is never a second bird pres- 
ent. 48 Indeed, one can hardly re- 
construct the scene according to 
Professor Parker's directions with- 
out getting a startling, unique, and 
original result. 

3. But if our two birds' wings 
do not match, the two hands most 
certainly do: (a) By an odd coin- 
cidence, they are exactly in the 
right position and at the right angle 
to represent a pair of hands, (b) As 
a magnified view of the hands will 
show, they are drawn exactly alike: 
the upper hand has strange twig- 
like fingers— six of them, not count- 
ing the thumb, and so also the 
lower hand, which no one will deny 
is a hand, has the same number of 
just such twig-like fingers, (c) 
Furthermore, examination of the 
original document makes it clear 
that the fuzzy or dotted sketching 
of part of the fingers of the upper 
hand is due entirely to the fraying 
of the papyrus fibers near the 
broken edge and is not an attempt 
to represent feathers, (d) The 
thumbs of both hands are strongly 
and unmistakably marked and 
drawn just alike, both being desig- 
nated by short, heavy lines stand 

2. The position of the priest's 
arm and whatever he is holding 
interferes drastically with the act 
of procreation indicated by Profes- 
sor Parker. There is nothing like 
the feet of the figure on the couch, 
scenes; when the central bird is 
present, the Anubis priest always 
stands well off to one side, beyond 
the feet of the figure on the couch, 
holding his hands upraised before 
his face, or bearing oil and ban- 

When the priest stands by 

ing well apart from the fingers and 
properly curved as thumbs should 
be. The thumb of the upper hand 
is especially clearly and emphatical- 
ly delineated. An eighteenth 
dynasty "canonical master draw- 
ing" in the British Museum shows 
us how thumbs should be drawn, 
Egyptian style, and leaves not the 
slightest doubt that the heavy line 
on the upper hand is a thumb and 
not a feather. 48a Where in such 
scenes, or in Egyptian art in gen- 
eral, does one ever find the lowest 

Improvement Era 

pinion of a hawk's wing so strange- 
ly designated? Eminent Egyptol- 
ogists are used to studying original 
documents, and Dr. Parker was un- 
derstandably reluctant to base 
interpretations on poor reproduc- 
tions; properly photographed or 
magnified, the two hands stand out 
clearly for what they are. 

4. But if only one hand is raised 
by the reclining figure, where is the 
other hand? Professor Parker knows 
where it should be: ". . . the left 
arm of Osiris is in reality lying at 
his side under him." In reality? In 
all the representations in which 
Osiris raises a hand, the other hand 
and arm are clearly shown beneath 
the body, the fingers reaching well 
down below the hip almost to the 
knee in an ample space provided 
for them between the body and the 
couch. And all that is precisely 
what we do not find in our papyrus 
—here, "in reality," there is no arm 
or hand under the body, and no 
room is provided for them, though 
more than enough of the papyrus 
is preserved to show where they 
should be. 49 

5. And then there is the matter 
of the knife. Since Professor 
Parker's attention was directed en- 
tirely to photographs of the papy- 
rus, as was proper, and not to the 
facsimile, he makes no mention of 
the knife in the priest's hand. Of 
course, if his interpretation is cor- 
rect, then there was no knife, and 
we must allow Dr. Lythgoe's claim 
that the Mormons have drawn it 
into the hand of the priest. But 
the other experts saw nothing 
wrong with the knife. Back in 1903 
Budge's colleague at the British 
Museum, Henry Woodward, saw in 
Facsimile 1 "an embalmer, knife 
in hand, preparing to disembowel a 
dead body to embalm it!" 50 Von 
Bissing saw "the soul leaving the 
body the moment when the priest 
is opening the body with a knife 
for mummification."" 1 And at the 
present time Professor George R. 

October 1968 

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Hughes of the Oriental Institute at 
Chicago obliges with an explana- 
tion: "The embalming of a deceased 
person, or rather the operation 
preparatory to mummification. (1) 
The deceased's soul or spirit ... it 
is usually shown as a human-headed 
bird. . . . [Fac. 1, Fig. 3] is the 
embalmer-priest who is usually 
shown wearing a jackal-headed 
mask. . . . He has in his hand a 
knife ready to make an incision in 
the abdomen." 52 

Thus, the knife remains a respect- 
able object and fits nicely into an 
embalming scene. What made; 
Lythgoe suspicious was the peculiar 
form of the knife, and rightly so, 
since it was badly copied in the 
reproduction Spalding sent to him. 
In the 1842 engravings the thing 
has a different shape, like a thin 
crescent moon. Here we are specu- 
lating, to be sure, but not without 
some reason, for Herman Kees sug- 
gested that the knife used by the 
Egyptians for human sacrifice had 
to be shaped like a thin new 
moon, 5:! and in one of the oldest 
Abraham legends we are told that 
the knife used by the patriarch to 
sacrifice Isaac "was a sharp knife, 
lusting after flesh, and crescent- 
shaped like the new-moon.""' 3 But 
more of this later. 

Unique, Uniquer, Uniquest: At 
this point, we are not ready to dis- 
cuss the significance of the oddities 
in the facsimiles of the Book of 
Abraham; our first concern is 
simply to show that such oddities 
do exist, and thereby refute the 
most serious charge against Joseph 
Smith, that of mistaking thoroughly 
typical and commonplace docu- 
ments for something unusual. The 
facsimiles are in fact most unusual 
documents, all three of them. The 
only one over which we have any 
real control at present is Facsimile 
1, and of this we have not been 
able to discover a single one of 
the supposedly "innumerable" and 
"identical" parallels. We are not 

referring to minute differences of 
detail, but to major and conspicu- 
ous discrepancies. We have dug 
up over a hundred lion-couch 
scenes, many of which may be con- 
sidered significantly like our papy- 
rus/' 1 But how do they compare 
with it? That is the question. 

In the past those who have really 
wanted to blast the Pearl of Great 
Price out of the water have printed 
reproductions of just any hypo- 
cephalus or lion-couch scene with 
the calm assurance that the mere 
sight of anything that looks like 
any of the facsimiles would be 
enough to spread consternation 
among the Saints and forever dis- 
qualify any and all statements of 
the Prophet. The idea that these 
various documents might be sub- 
jected to serious comparative study 
with a real interest in the myriad 
questions they raise was the far- 
thest thing from the minds of those 
who published them. 

Whenever like but not identical 
documents are placed side by side 
for study, two problems present 
themselves: (a) to explain the re- 
semblances between them, and (b) 
to explain the differences. The 
favorite game of comparative 
scholarship since the mid-nine- 
teenth century has been the hunt 
for resemblances while discounting 
differences, a practice cultivated to 
a fine art by the evolutionists and 
very well and clearly demonstrated 
by the critics of the Book of Abra- 
ham. These latter constantly 
pointed to the general resemblance 
of the facsimiles to other documents 
while stubbornly refusing to ac- 
knowledge any of the conspicuous 
points of difference, attributing 
everything simply to bad copying. 
But however "suspicious" and even 
"damning" the resemblances may 
appear, it is not enough to say, for 
example, that since ancient myth 
and ritual are full of remarkable 
parallels to the death and resurrec- 
tion of Christ, the New Testament 

Improvement Era 

must be rejected as history. To do 
that is to overlook both the great 
number of interesting hypotheses 
capable of explaining the sup- 
posedly devastating resemblances 
and the no less numerous questions 
raised by the swarming discrepan- 
cies and contrasts. 

"Well-known" was a favorite ex- 
pression of these critics, and we 
are still being told that Facsimile 1 
is "a well-known scene from the 
Osiris mysteries" ( Parker ) and that 
it belongs to "a well-known class 
of documents" (Young), as if that 
explained everything. But we can- 
not drop the discussion there; just 
as Egyptologists had to learn by 
long experience that it was unwise 
to label everything found in a tomb 
as funerary in nature, so the stu- 
dent is admonished today not to 
leap to conclusions every time he 
sees a lion-couch. A useful study 
reminds us that the expression "he 
who is on his couch" can refer to 
anything from Osiris in the Under- 
world to a solid citizen taking 20 
winks on a warm afternoon. 55 It 
is surprising how often an otherwise 
well-known scene is converted by a 
few minor alterations into some- 
thing not at all well-known, as 
when by altering the names of 
participants "the Cairo papyrus has 
seriously distorted the meaning of 
the ritual," which is otherwise 
a well-known scene, 51 ' or when a 
well-known scene from the Book 
of the Dead loses its well-known 
meaning by another such change 
of names: "It would be easy to find 
numerous parallels to each of 
these figures," writes G. Nagel of 
the scene, "but that would not 
mean much," 57 i.e., the numerous 
parallels no matter how well-known 
are not enough in themselves to 
identify every scene in which they 
occur. N. M. Da vies reports on 
another document, "wholly conven- 
tional in its subjects," which isn't 
conventional at all because it "dis- 
plays certain details and peculiari- 

ties of treatment that are, so far as 
my knowledge goes, unique." 5S The 
substitution of one divinity for 
another in a series of lion-couch 
scenes changes the normal resurrec- 
tion motif, according to Derchain, 
to "an astral or calendrical myth" 
with special emphasis on the flood- 
ing of the Nile, 59 and by another 

such alteration the figure on the 
couch ceases to be Osiris and be- 
comes a dead person "identified 
with a complex entity" who re- 
mains quite mysterious. 60 

Such alterations, which convert 
familiar scenes into unfamiliar 
ones, are by no means more radical 
than those that confront the stu- 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

The "get-out-from-under" attitude 

There is sometimes evident an attitude of wanting to get out from 
under, wanting not to be accountable to anyone. Young people, 
for example, sometimes choose to move away from home and 
family and friends. Work, education, opportunities in other areas are 
often good reasons. But to leave just to cut loose, just to go it alone, 
just to be free from being accountable to anyone may well not be wise. 
And before we feel we want to get away, to get out from under, we 
ought honestly to make sure we don't want it for the wrong reasons. No 
one is always safe. No one can know when he may become ill, or have 
an accident, or find himself in some serious situation. No one knows all 
the answers. No one can be sure he is self-sufficient. Besides, others 
have much invested in us. Others have taught us, trained us, nursed 
and nourished us, loved us, and given us part of their lives— parents, 
teachers, doctors, friends, family have done this and much more, and 
they have a right to an interest in us, and we have an obligation to 
recognize that right. There is also the fact that if we are alone and 
without the interest of others, we could become indifferent and deteriorate. 
Much of our performance is for others and not for us. We do our best 
when others expect it of us. If life were simply a matter of satisfying 
our selfish selves, there wouldn't be much progress or improvement. The 
faith and interest of others leads us to be better— and surely we wouldn't, 
for the wrong reasons, want to separate ourselves from stabilizing factors 
and influences, and place ourselves in a position that would make it 
easier to lower standards or lose the most precious things a person can 
possess: virtue, honesty, honor, respect, excellence of purpose and per- 
formance. Almost anything can happen to almost anyone, and the 
"cut loose," "get-out-from-under," "leave-me-alone" attitude, in this sense, 
isn't sensible or safe. To cite a significant sentence: "There is no such 
thing in human existence as being so high you're not responsible to 
anybody." 1 

Lawrence A. Appley, Managers in Action. 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System August 11, 1968. 

October 1968 


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dent of Facsimile 1. How is this 
document to be classified? The 
student who looks over a hundred 
or so lion-couch scenes will readily 
recognize that they fall into a num- 
ber of clear-cut categories, the 
principal ones being these: 

1. First, there are a number of 
drawings, usually small ones, of a 
mummy reposing on a lion-couch 
all alone, unaccompanied by any 
other figure, peacefully awaiting 
the resurrection as it lies in state. 
It is simply the mummy on its bier. 

2. There are quite a few em- 
balming scenes, often plainly la- 
beled as such, with Anubis 
approaching with bandages and/or 
ointment, or working with his hands 
on or over the mummy. This scene 
is not to be confused with No. 1, 

A close examination of Fac. 1 shows the 
above as Abraham's hands, and not wings. 

and is sometimes shown as a sequel 
to it. 

3. Then there are many resur- 
rection or resuscitation scenes, such 
as the famous "Awakening of 
Osiris" in the Temple of Apet at 
Luxor: "The Neter [god] is begin- 
ning to move himself, bending his 
right arm and raising his left foot." 61 

4. There are a number of pro- 
creation scenes in which the 
mummy is begetting his divine 
successor or reincarnation. 

Now the question is, to which of 
these well-known scenes or classes 
does our Facsimile 1 belong? This 
is exactly what the experts have 
never been able to agree on. Some 
have designated it most emphati- 
cally as an embalming scene; others 
like Breasted saw in it a resurrec- 

Improvement Era 

tion, and now Professor Parker tells 
us it is a mystic marriage. All the 
authorities have good reason for 
their opinions; the elements of all 
the episodes are undeniably pres- 
ent in our little sketch, or else 
experienced scholars would not 
have seen them there so clearlv. 
But which is the predominant 
theme? The difficulty of answering 
that question is quite enough in 
itself to brand our document as 
unique. And now some European 
scholars are suggesting a new and 
neglected category for some of the 
lion-couch spectacles, namely, that 
they are really sacrificial scenes. 
This, of course, rings a tiny bell for 
Joseph Smith, and we shall have to 
look at these new studies quite 
closely. Until now none of the 

a different position, there being no 
bird at the head of the mummy; 
(2) Anubis has both hands raised, 
not one hand lowered; (3) the 
figure on the couch has only one 
hand raised, while (4) the bird 
above him has a proper wing, not 
something that looks like a hand; 
(5) the man on the couch wears 
no clothes, (6) but does wear the 
nm's headdress and rests his head 
on a pillow; (7) his left arm and 

hand are plainly visible, held well 
apart from his body; ( 8 ) two ladies 
are in attendance; (9) a figure with 
a Horus mask is also assisting; 
(10) there are no Canopic jars 
under the couch, there is no croco- 
dile, and no pylons, etc.; (11) 
stereotyped and familiar inscrip- 
tions accompany the drawing— the 
inscriptions on the Mormon papy- 
rus are completely different; (12) 
Anubis is quite differently attired 

Canonical drawings by 18th Dynasty Egyp- 
tian artist shows the way to draw thumbs. 

critics of the Joseph Smith papyri 
has bothered to mention them. 

To show how hard it is to pin 
down our facsimile, we invite the 
reader to compare it with the 
closest parallel in our collection. An 
Egyptologist may be able to ex- 
plain the significance of an arm or 
a bird (though it is precisely in 
matters of significance that the 
experts have always disagreed most 
widely among themselves, and still 
do), but any intelligent child can 
usually spot an arm or a bird when 
he sees one in a picture, and it 
needs no trained specialist to 
recognize at least a dozen points 
of difference between our two 
sketches when they are placed side 
by side. Notice that in the non- 
Mormon papyrus ( 1 ) the bird is in 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

emphatic trifles" 

The swift passing of a season is always sobering— for "time," said 
Benjamin Franklin "is the stuff life is made of." 1 And while we 
have a conviction that in the eternal sense time is limitless, what we 
can now foresee passes swiftly. And yet often we splinter it away with 
less thought, less purpose, less accomplishment than time is entitled to. 
"At times," said Emerson, "the whole world seems to be in conspiracy 
to importune you with emphatic trifles." 2 It is true that other people 
splinter our lives into trifles if we let them, and often we ourselves do the 
same. Often we let our lives be cluttered with encumbrances— with 
bits and pieces and paraphernalia— with "emphatic trifles," as Emerson 
said. And while we don't want to be slaves to unreasoning routine, we 
ought to recognize the waste when time is not well used— for "time," 
said Diogenes, "is the most valuable thing that a man can spend." 
"Don't waste time," pleaded Arthur Brisbane. "Don't waste it in idleness; 
don't waste it in regretting the time already wasted; don't waste it in 
dissipation; don't waste it in resolutions a thousand times repeated, never 
to be carried out. Don't waste your time. Use all of it. Sleep, work, 
rest, think. Save part of the time of yesterday by saving part of the 
money earned yesterday. . . . The best of us have already wasted time 
enough. . . . Remember that however much time you have wasted 
already, you have time enough left [for some accomplishment and re- 
covery] if you will use it . . . while life and time remain." 3 Passing and 
trivial things should not be allowed unduly to take us away from more 
productive pursuits, nor should we let others often distract us with 
trifles that take us away from our work. "At times the whole world 
seems to be in conspiracy to importune you with emphatic trifles." 2 

'Benjamin Franklin, "The Way to Wealth." 

-Emerson, Sclf-Rcliancc. 

■''Arthur Brisbane, as reprinted in Sunshine Magazine. 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System July 28, 1968. 

October 1968 





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in the two pictures. One could 
easily add to the list, but it might 
well be objected that this is only 
one document chosen for compari- 
son, even if it is the nearest one in 
general appearance, and that 
among the numerous other lion- 
couch scenes are those in which 
each single element in the Joseph 
Smith papyrus could be matched. 
But this is not so; on many points 
our little sketch remains quite 
unique. Here are some of them: 

1. Question: Of the hundred 
other figures on lion-couches, how 
many have both hands raised? An- 
swer: None. Professor Parker is 
therefore statistically justified in 
being suspicious. So we pursue 
our statistics further: 

2. How many of these figures 
have one hand upraised without 
having the other clearly visible, 
placed under the body in a space 
provided for it? Answer: None, 
though we know of one example in 
which the hand is shown beside 
the body, but very clearly shown, 
almost touching the knee. 

3. How many other scenes show 
the figure on the couch clothed in 
the manner here shown? Answer: 
None. All are either nude or fully 
invested as mummies. 

4. In how many is this figure 
wearing anklets or slippers? An- 
swer: None. 

5. In how many are the couch, 
the figure on the couch, and the 
priest out of line with each other 
in the strange manner of the Abra- 
ham papyrus? Answer: None; we 
have no replicas in which the artist 
has made any such blunder or any- 
thing comparable to it. 

6. How many have crocodiles 
beneath the couch? Answer: None. 

7. How many have hatched lines 
designated as "expanse, or firma- 
ment"? Answer: None of the others 
has such a design. 

8. How many have the twelve 
gates or "pillars of heaven" or any- 
thing like them? Answer: None. 

Improvement Era 

9. How many show the lotus 
and offering table, otherwise com- 
mon in Egyptian religious and 
secular scenes? Answer: None. 

10. How many show the resur- 
rection, procreation, or embalming 
scene without the presence of the 
two ladies (Isis and Nephthys) 
and/or other dignitaries? Answer: 

11. Granting Dr. Parker's recon- 
struction, when a bird is shown 
flying over the middle of the couch, 
how often is Anubis in the position 
shown? Answer: Never. 

12. How often is any bird shown 
with wings drawn in the manner 
Professor Parker indicates? Answer: 

13. How many have inscriptions 
matching those in the Pearl of 
Great Price papyrus? Answer: 
None, though nearly all of them 
have stereotyped inscriptions desig- 
nating the nature of the scene. 

So our manuscript is different. 
But is it significantly different? In 
looking at it beside the others, we 
miss the august figures of the gods 
standing by and the solemn re- 
ligious dignity they give to the 
other compositions as they kneel in 
mourning, stand guard, raise hands 
in praise, or make magical passes. 
At the same time we are impressed 
by the rather massive additions— 
the unfamiliar writing that frames 
the scene on either side, and the 
stage-like foundation of elements 
found in none of the other papyri. 
True, every individual sign and 
figure can be matched rather easily 
somewhere else, just as every word 
on this page can be found in almost 
any English book, but it is the com- 
bination of perfectly ordinary signs 
that makes extraordinary composi- 
tions, and we may well repeat the 
words of Professor Nagel: "It would 
be easy to find numerous parallels 
to each of these figures, but that 
would not mean much. . . ." For 
the combination here is different. 
We have just noted that for an 

Egyptian document to be con- 
sidered unique, it does not have to 
be spectacularly different from all 
others: it can resemble scores of 
others in almost every particular 
and still have a message to convey 
that is quite distinct from theirs. 
Whether our facsimiles belong to 
this maverick type remains to be 


4B Deveria, op. cit., p. 195, and Prof. G. E. 
Hughes, op. cit. supra, note 37. 

* 8 In the copies at our disposal (see note 54 
below) are only two scenes with two birds in 
them, as against seven with three birds, 22 
with one bird, and one with five birds. 

47 Parker, loc. cit. supra, note 23; Budge, 
The Gods of the Egyptians (London, 1904), 
Vol. 2, pp. 254-58. "Isis and Nephythys were 
. . . associated inseparably with each other . . . 
and in all important matters . . . they acted 
together." Ibid., p. 258. 

^The reproduction here given, after Lanzone, 
Dizionario, Plate CCXC, is the nearest thing to 
the Mormon papyrus. 

^Reproduced in Erik Iversen, in Journal of 
Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 46 ( 1960 ) pp. 71- 
79, PI. XVI. 

4U There is one representation, from Denderah, 
in which the lower hand is not beneath but 
laid alongside the body, but hand and arm 
are very clearly depicted, the fingers reaching 
well down almost to the knee, in Revue 
d'Egyptologie, Vol. 15 (1963), p. 17, Fig. 4. 

soCited in Era, Vol. 16, p. 342. 

5l In Spalding, op. cit., p. 30. 

52 Hughes, in letter cited above, note 37. 

53 Hermann Kees, in Zeitschrift fuer Aegyp- 
tische Sprache, Vol. 78 (1942), pp. 47f. 

M The best source of "lion-couch" scenes is 
F. A. F. Mariette, Denderah (Paris, 1875), 
Vol. 4, Plates 65ff, most of which is repro- 
duced in R. V. Lanzone, Dizionario di Mitologia 
Egizia (Turin, 1885), Plates 30, 63, 64, 261 
(3 scenes), 262, 265, 268, 269, 270, 271 
(2 scenes), 272 (2 scenes), 273, 274 (2 
scenes), 276, 277 (2 scenes), 278, 279, 280, 
281, 282 (2 scenes), 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 
289, 290, 291. Sixteen of these are reproduced in 
E. A. W. Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians 
.(London: Methuen, 1904), Vol. 2, pp. 132-37, 
and there are others in his Osiris ( New York : 
University Books, 1961), Vol. 2, pp. 22-57, 
including some not found in Lanzone, i.e., on 
pp. 22, 23, 24, 30, 45, 48, 49, 51, 53. More 
in A. Moret, Mysteres Egyptiens (Paris, 1913), 
pp. 51, 53, 57 (2 scenes), 60, opp. 64. Other 
examples may be found in Journal of Egyptian 
Archaeology, Vol. 4 (1918), p. 143; Vol. 17 
(1931), Plates 56, 57 (3 scenes); Vol. 24 
(1938), p. 30, fig. 9: in Chronique d'Egypte, 
Vol. 19 (1943), pp. 195-97, figs. 27, 28, 29, 
30 (2 scenes), and Vol. 34 (1959), p. 74, 
fig. 5; also in Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische 
Sprache, Vol. 55 (1919), p. 51, and Reccuil de 
Travaux, Vol. 21 (1899), p. 146, and Vol. 37 

seen. But what we have seen is 
that one of them, at least, the one 
with which we are at present con- 
cerned, departs from the standard 
patterns in so many particulars as 
to render it worthy of closer atten- 
tion than anyone has so far been 
willing to give it. O 

(To be continued) 

(1915), pp. 121, 125; Bibliotheque Egyptologi- 
que, Vol. 3 (1894), Plate XI; Bulletin de 
I'Institute Francais d'Arch. Orientale, Vol. 28 
(1929), p. 47; Egyptian Religion, Vol. 3 
(1935), p. 144; Ancient Egypt, Vol. 1 (1914), 
p. 21, fig. 17. Lion-couch scenes pre most 
easily found in large editions of the Book of 
the Dead: R. Lepsius, Das Todtenbuch der 
Aegyptcr (Leipzig, 1842), Plates 8, 33, 74, 
75; Edonard Naville, Papyrus Funeraires de 
la XXe Dynastie (Paris, 1912), Plate 1, and 
Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch (Berlin, 1886), 
Vol. 2, Plates 1, 3 (5 scenes), 5, 28 (3 scenes), 
173, 174, 187, 207; T. G. Allen, The Egyptian 
Book of the Dead (Chicago University, 1960), 
Plates 26. 48, 49, 60, 70, 94; E. A. W. Budge, 
The Book of the Dead, Papyrus of Ani (New 
York, London, 1913), Vol. 3, Plates 7, 17, 34. 
Unusual versions may be found in H. K. 
Beupsch, Thesurus Inscriptionum Aegypt'acarum 
(Leipzig, 1883-1891), Nos. 749, 750, 784, 
789; also in Life magazine, June 7, 1968, two 
scenes: one is discussed in E. Otto, Das 
Aegyptische Mundoeffnungsritual (Wiesbaden: 
Harrassowitz, 1960), p. 74, Abb. 12; and in 
Ad. Ennan, Religion der Aegypter (1934), p. 
293, fig. 121. There is a small lion-couch 
vignette in the "Joseph Smith Papyri" (photo 
in Era, Vol. 71 [February 1968], p. 40F). Other 
references will be given in subsequent articles. 
An actual lion-couch was found in the Tomb 
of Tutankhamon; its ritual significance is noted 
by A. Piankoff, The Shrines of Tutankhamon 
(Harper Torch Books, 1962), p. 36. 

BB V. S. Golenischchev, Catalogue General des 
Antiquities Egyptiennes du Musee de Caire, 
Papyrus Hieratiques (1927), p. 133. Here the 
hieroglyph for "couch" is the lion-couch. "It 
is difficult to say [writes Golenischchev] 
whether the designation of 'he who is on the 
couch' refers to the dead god Osiris. One could 
just as well think of the king (or, less prob- 
ably, of some ordinary individual), who was 
thus placed while he slept under the protection 
of the gods." On the couch in the Underworld, 
E. Otto, Mundoeffnungsritual, Vol. 2, p. 33. 

M A. H. Gardiner, Hieratic Papyri in the Brit- 
ish Museum, Vol. 1 (1935), p. 101. 

57 G. Nagel, in Bulletin de I'Inst. Fr. d'Arch. 
Or., Vol. 29 (1929), pp. 30-31. 

M N. M. Davies, in Journal of Egyptian 
Archaeology, Vol. 32 (1946), p. 69, cf. Plate 

B9 Ph. Derchain, Revue d'Egyptologie, Vol. 15 
(1963), p. 13. 

°°J. Capart, in Chronique d'Egypte, Vol. 19 
(1943), pp. 192, 194. 

01 A. Varille, in Annales du Service, Vol. 53 
(1956), p. 110. 

A Dream Grown Tall 
By Florence Pedigo Jansson 

An oak is but a dream grown tall, 
An acorn's upward thrust, 
A high resolve that shaped itself 
To action born of trust. 

An oak is sturdiness endowed 
By roots of mighty length 
That hold its aspirations high 
And give it inner strength. 

October 1968 


::::.:..;:.--::.Si id;:;: ^i^iib b>-. . :i;:n^F^;r : = = : :. : : . :.:.: : : : i : :.: :.: : i : 

:;;..:■■ ^ .l--^:: .^ ■/■■■ r^ 

The material below is taken from a research paper on Derby- 
shire, showing detailed information on pre-1858 English 
probate jurisdictions. The entire report, which includes a 
map and color key, may be obtained for 50c from the Gene- 
alogical Society, 107 S. Main, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111. 
This sample report is one of 18 such probate jurisdiction 
reports prepared by the Genealogical Society. The other 
reports, which may also be ordered for 50c each, are 
on the following English counties: Bedfordshire, Berkshire, 
London, Cambridgeshire, Buckinghamshire, Huntingdonshire, 
Lincolnshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Wiltshire, Hert- 
fordshire, Norfolk, Kent, Suffolk, Cheshire, Lancashire, and 
Westmorland. All additional counties in England and Wales 
will be completed in the near future. These reports may be 
obtained by writing the Genealogical Society, 107 S. Main, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111. Cost is 50c each. 



„ :::■ ■-■: . :■■ ■ 

:: " " a . ^ . '^ : ■: ■'■'■ ■: ■ ■ ..' ■'; " V 

• The probate records of England are among the best genealogical sources for direct evidence of rela- 
tionships. They are also among the most neglected sources because of the many variations in the ecclesias- 
tical jurisdictions that governed the probate of wills prior to 1858. To complete a thorough examination 
of the probate records of a certain area, it is necessary to have a guide to the various probate jurisdictions 
and the lines of authority followed by the Established Church of England. This is important to ensure 
that probate searches will cover the probate records most likely to contain information concerning ancestors. 

Almost all pre-1858 wills were proved and letters of administration were granted in ecclesiastical courts, 
of which there were over 300. The jurisdictions of these courts did not conform with civil boundaries; thus 
for convenience this series has been arranged by county with appropriate cross references. Using it as a 
guide, you will receive assistance in locating the exact probate courts to search for any given area with 
the least amount of time and effort. 

To search a probate jurisdiction: 

1. Locate on the map the parish or locality where your ancestor lived. 

2. Match the color in which the parish is situated with the color key in the jurisdiction table on the 
page opposite the map. This is the appropriate jurisdiction you should search. 

3. Search the probate records in the order indicated in the column directly below the appropriate 
jurisdiction table. 

Example: If your research problem is in the parish of Alfreton, Derbyshire: 

a. To help you find Alfreton on the map in this booklet, first find it in a gazetteer. Alfreton is in the area colored 

b. Match the green on the map with the green in the color key on the jurisdiction table on the page opposite the 

c. Note that Alfreton was under the jurisdiction of the Episcopal Consistory Court of Lichfield. 

d. Search the probate records in the other indicated column under that heading: 

1. Court of the Bishop of Lichfield 

2. Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury 

Since civil and ecclesiastical boundaries were not necessarily one and the same, it is important in pre- 
1858 probate searches to consider nearby courts, including those situated across county boundaries. Also, 
ecclesiastical boundaries and rights were not always observed or may have been changed over the years. 

Many peculiar courts closed before 1858. When this occurred, jurisdiction reverted to the local arch- 
deaconry and/or diocesan courts. 

Most of the records of all pre-1858 probate courts are available on film in the library of the Gene- 
alogical Society of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or in its branch libraries. 

On January 11, 1858, all of the ecclesiastical courts were closed and England was divided into civil 
probate districts, thus making probate searches comparatively simple after that date. Beginning in 1858, 
district probate registrars forwarded copies of all wills and administrations each year to the Principal Pro- 
bate Registry, Somerset House, London, where an annual index is maintained. A copy of the master index 
1858 to 1957 is on film in the library of the Genealogical Society. 

For additional information concerning the value and use of probate records, refer to Genealogical Re- 
search in England and Wales, Volume 2, by Gardner and Smith. 

Most of Derbyshire was under the jurisdiction of the Court of the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry; 
hence, the majority of genealogical searches will be in the records of this court and its superiors. 

Pre-1858 probate courts having some jurisdiction in Derbyshire were: 

Burton-upon-Trent, Court of the Peculiar of (see Staffordshire probate jurisdictions for full details) 


Improvement Era 

::" " :: - :■!::: 

■ ^ ; iiii ■■ : " ;; " - ■■::;; ■::.:■ : ."" ■■".. ."" 

'# : : : IOi>: 

Probate Jurisdictions 




Canterbury, Court of the Archbishop of (Prerogative Court of Canterbury, also known as P.C.C.; see London probate 

jurisdictions for full details) 
Dale Abbey, Court of the Manor of 
Hartington, Court of the Peculiar of the Dean of 

Lichfield (Cathedral), Court of the Dean and Chapter of (see Staffordshire probate jurisdiction for full details) 
Lichfield and Coventry, Court of the Bishop of ( Episcopal Consistory Court of Lichfield and Coventry; see Staffordshire 

probate jurisdictions for full details ) 
Peak Forest, Court of the Peculiar of 
Sawley, Court of -the Prebendal Peculiar of (a prebend of Lichfield Cathedral) 

The Court of the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield Cathedral claimed jurisdiction over the peculiar of 
Peak Forest and during inhibition over the court of the Prebendal Peculiar of Sawley. 

The grants made in the Court of the Peculiar of Burton-upon- Trent were made by the Lord of the 
Manor of Burton .as successor to the pre-Reformation ecclesiastical peculiar jurisdiction of the Abbey of 
Burton-upon-Trent and not as Lord of the Manor of Burton. Chilcote, Derbyshire, was a chapelry in the 
parish of Burton-upon-Trent, but was annexed to the parish of Clifton Campville, Staffordshire. Searches 
should be made in the Court of the Peculiar of Burton-upon-Trent and the Court of the Bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry. 

The Prerogative Court (of the Archbishop) of Canterbury (P.C.C.) claimed sole jurisdiction where the 
deceased had bona notabilia (an estate valued at more than five pounds sterling) in two dioceses or in two 
peculiars in the province of Canterbury. On some occasions the P.C.C. appears to have made grants even 
when there was no foundation of exercising jurisdiction. The P.C.C. also granted probate of wills and 
letters of administration for those with property in England, Wales, Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands 
who died at sea or overseas. Such persons are distinguished in the calendars (indexes) by the entry 
"pts," abbreviation for "parts overseas," instead of the name of the place. Apparently there are grants for 
persons having bona notabilia in both provinces or grants for persons dying overseas proved in the courts 
of both Canterbury and York. Probate was granted in York (P.C.Y. ) for that part of the estate within the 
northern province, and in Canterbury ( P.C.C. ) for that part of the estate in the southern province. Because 
of the possibility that the P.C.C. might infringe upon the jurisdiction of York, the records of the Preroga- 
tive Court of Canterbury should always be searched when grants relating to estates within the province 
of York cannot be found therein. This also applies to estates anywhere in England, Wales, Isle of Man, 
and the Channel Islands. 

During the Commonwealth Interregnum from 1653 to 1660, the Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury 
in the form of a civil court had sole testamentary jurisdiction over all of England and Wales. Since the 
Reformation it has been usual for the estates of men of wealth and position to receive grants of probate and 
letters of administration in this court. During vacancies in this court between 997 and 1590, some wills were 
proved in the Court of the Prior and Chapter of Christ Church, Canterbury, Kent. 

Some wills from around 1313-1644, proved either during vacancies or for other reasons from various dio- 
ceses within the Province of Canterbury, are recorded in the archiepiscopal registers kept at Lambeth Pal- 
ace. The Court of Delegates was also a court of appeal for the provinces of Canterbury and York, includ- 
ing their peculiars, royal peculiars, and the Irish probate courts. 

The original records of the Courts of the Peculiars of Huntington, Peak Forest, and Sawley are at 
the Lichfield Joint Record Office, Public Library, Bird Street, Lichfield. Those of the Court of the Manor 
of Dale Abbey are at the Nottinghamshire Record Office, County House, High Pavement, Nottingham. O 

October 1968 83 



of Colonel 


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Events in the life of Colonel Thomas 
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The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Youth About: 



"No legacy is so 
, rich as honesty." 

By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

• Have you ever examined an apple seed and realized 
that within that small object are the components with 
the potential of becoming roots, trunk, bark, limb, 
leaves, blossoms, fruit, and other seeds, with the same 
potential? It is amazing to realize the great possi- 
bilities that are stored up in a small seed. 

Science has found that within one of the most 
minute particles is one of the great known powers 
in the universe— atomic power. 

Small acts, like the seeds and the atom, are often 
the sources of powerful determining factors in a life. 
The Lord has said, ". . . out of small things proceed- 
eth that which is great." (D&C 64:33.) Certainly this 
is most true as it pertains to acts involving honesty. 

Honesty is the very foundation of character. No 
virtue can be possessed until a person is honest. The 
power of simple acts of honesty can be portrayed by 
examining the life of one of the greatest Americans, 
a man whose very name has come to be identified 

Improvement Era 

with honesty— President Abraham Lincoln. Honesty cannot be compromised. Karl G. Maeser, 

Lincoln was born into abject poverty. He was de- the great pioneer educator, gave an excellent descrip- 

prived of any formal education. He knew want and tion of honesty. He said, "I have been asked what I 

hunger. In many respects Lincoln seemed relegated mean by word of honor.' I will tell you. Place me 

to a life based on nothing much greater than the behind prison walls— walls of stone ever so high, ever 

pursuit of survival. However, his father had taught so thick, reaching ever so far into the ground— there 

him to be honest. And in this regard Shakespeare is a possibility that in some way or another I may be 

said, "No legacy is so rich as honesty." Certainly this able to escape; but stand me on the floor and draw a 

proved true in Lincoln's case. chalk line around me and have me give my word of 

In the day-to-day activities of life, Lincoln experi- honor never to cross it. Can I get out of that circle? 

enced the blessings of honesty. On one occasion his No, never! I'd die first." 

younger sister, against her mother's strict instruction, The importance of honesty cannot be overstated, 
followed Abe into the woods where he was splitting Throughout the scriptures the Lord has charged us 
rails. Being somewhat playful, she sneaked up be- to be 'honest. From Sinai he charged ancient Israel 
hind Abe and screamed. Caught by surprise, Abe with the injunction, "Thou shalt not bear false wit- 
fell, and the axe cut his sister's leg. He tore strips off ness. . . ." (Exod. 20:16.) In the meridian of time 
his shirt and bandaged the wound. Then he asked we find this same charge (Phil. 4:8); to the Nephites 
her, "What will you tell Mother?" She replied, "I'll the command was the same (Mosiah 4:28); and again 
tell her the truth. I cut my leg on the axe." in this dispensation the standard of honesty has been 

"That won't be enough of the truth," Abe insisted, given from the Lord (D&C 42:21, 51:9). 

"You must tell her how it happened and trust her to Honesty has ever been the distinguishing mark that 

understand it and do what is right." separated a great man or woman from the rest of 

Lincoln realized that honesty was not always the mankind. In the words of Cromwell, "A few honest 

easiest way, but he knew it was the right way. Soon men are better than numbers. If you choose godly, 

after he was defeated in his bid for the state legisla- honest men to be captains . . . , honest men will follow 

ture of Illinois, he became part owner in a store. The them." 

debts were piled up, and Lincoln's business partner Esther, a Jewish girl, was chosen by the king of 

began drinking more and more. Finally, within a very Persia to be his wife from among all the unmarried 

short time, he died. Lincoln had to assume the entire women in his kingdom, because of her great beauty 

debt— and by that time it was a tremendous sum. and charm. However, the prime minister, Haman, 

But Lincoln's honesty helped him face his obligations, issued a decree that all the Jews should be destroyed 

and finally he paid the huge debt. When Esther heard of this, she was fearful and knew 

In the simple day-to-day events, Lincoln gained the she had a grave decision to make. She could save 

honesty that was to help lift him from his poverty to herself by keeping her secret and thus see her beloved 

the state legislature, then to Congress, and finally to people destroyed, or she could attempt to save her 

the presidency of the United States. people and place her own life in danger by revealing 

Lincoln proved the truth of what Alexander Pope her own nationality to the king. She chose the honest 

has written: "An honest man's the noblest work of and courageous way. And now as we honor Esther, 

God." we do so not because of her great beauty, but rather 

Some believe 'that honesty is a policy that can be because of her courageous honesty, 

subscribed to when the situation is convenient, and Certainly honesty is the mark of a great individual, 

just as easily can be abdicated the moment the situa- And just as certainly, that honesty must be learned 

tion becomes difficult. However, there is no such and practiced in the small day-to-day events of life, 

thing as being partially honest. To be honest, to The honesty in a classroom when others may be 

adhere to truth, is not something to be conditioned by cheating; the honesty in an athletic contest, even 

the situation of the moment. when a lie may produce a winning margin; the hon- 

The Lord has commanded that we are to be honest esty with the Lord in keeping the commandments as 

in all situations. The dishonesty of others cannot be you promise each Sunday when you partake of the 

an excuse for us. He has said in this regard, "Verily, sacrament— all of these decisions are the seeds that 

verily, I say unto you, wo be unto him that lieth produce honest, upright, and successful men and 

to deceive because he supposeth that another lieth to women. 

deceive, for such are not exempt from the justice of It is so true that "out of small tilings proceedeth that 

God." (D&C 10:28.) which is great." (D&C 64:33.) O 

October 1968 85 


Samoan Representative Mrs. America 

President Samuelu Atoa, 
first counselor in the Apia 
Stake presidency, 
represented Western Samoa 
in the Interregional 
Seminar on the Development 
of Senior Administrators 
in the Public Service 
of Developing Countries in 
Switzerland. He is chairman 
of the Public Service Com- 
mission of Western Samoa. 

Sister Joan Fisher, 
of the Winder (Salt Lake 
City) Tenth Ward and 
mother of three children, 
has been crowned 
Mrs. America of 1969 in 
ceremonies at St. Paul, 
Minnesota. The new 
Mrs. America, wife of M. 
Byron Fisher, is active 
in MIA teaching 

The LDS Scene 

Regional Representatives 

Two new Regional Representatives of the Council 

of the Twelve have been called by the First Presidency. 

They are Elders Gerald G. Smith and Keith E. Garner. 

Elder Smith will oversee the Spanish Fork, Utah, 

region, and Elder Garner will oversee the Oakland-Walnut 

Creek region of northern California. Elder Smith, 

former president of the Eastern States Mission, has been a 

member of two stake presidencies and is presently 

serving in the presidency of the mission home 

in Salt Lake City. He and his wife, Olive, are the parents 

of three children. Elder Garner, recently 

released as president of the Southern Far East 

Mission, has served as bishop and high councilor. He 

and his wife, Marilynn, are the parents of four children. 

Karate Championships 

Ed Parker of the South Pasadena 
(California) Ward recently sponsored and 
directed the Fifth Annual International 
Karate Championships, often called 
the "world series of karate." 
Brother Parker, a well-known 
instructor and author of karate, hosted 
more than 1,800 participants in the two-day 
affair at the Long Beach, California, arena. 

Prophets in Portrait 

Portraits of Presidents Joseph Smith and Brigham 

Young hang in the newly opened National Portrait Gallery 

in Washington, D.C., which is sponsored by the 

Smithsonian Institution. Some 300 works, including 

paintings, sculpture, and photographs of those 

who have contributed to the diverse past of America, are 

on display in the old Patent Office, a building in 

which Abraham Lincoln celebrated his second inaugural 

ball, and which housed many of the Civil War wounded. 


Improvement Era 

World Conference on Records 

Planning sessions for the World Conference on 

Records, sponsored by the Church's Genealogical Society, 

were highlighted by a recent banquet and 

pre-conference meetings attended by church, civic, 

governmental, commercial, and other internationally 

respected genealogists, archivists, librarians, 

and historians. The conference, to be held August 5-8, 

1969, in the new Salt Lake County Salt Palace, 

will host conferees from all sections of the world. Many 

famous scholars and experts have already registered 

for the conference, the first of its kind ever to be 

held. Among those experts attending the planning sessions 

were Dr. Aziz S. Atiya, Middle East scholar, 

Mrs. Atiya, widely recognized papyriologist, and 

Dr. Baron Karl Friedrich von Frank, noted German 

genealogist from Austria. 

In beautifu 


October 1968 

ustrated Stories From 
The Book of Mormon 

Thousands are now enjoying VoL I 
and highly praising it. 

What some think of this series: 

A leading educator: 

"Great. . . . This belongs in every LDS 


Enthusiastic readers: 

"This makes the stories in the Book of 

Mormon live." 

"It makes it so easy to read and under- 

A bishop: 

"Why didn't we have this when I was 

raising my family?" 

An educator: 

"The greatest educational breakthrough 

on the Book of Mormon to date." 

A seminary teacher: 

"I've waited 20 years for this work. . . . 

It's great." 

A father: 

"I can hardly get my children to bed 

after family home evening. . . . They 

want to read and reread this great 


From many happy subscribers: 
"My family have almost worn out our 
first volume. We can hardly wait for 
the next one." 

First two volumes now available. 

Order now by mail or from local 
representatives. Not available 
in book stores. 



Please send copies of Volume I, 

copies of Volume II. "Illustrated 

Stories From the Book of Mormon"— @ 
$6.50 each plus 24c tax and 50c for postage 

and packing. I enclose for 

total number of books — Or send C.O.D. 
I am interested in being a sales representa- 
tive for these publications. Please contact 

Name Ward . 

Address Stake . 

City & State 

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"Can You Teach Johnny . . ." 

I found "Can You Teach Johnny to Pray" 
[June] to be one of the most spiritual 
feasts I have ever read in my long years 
of reading the Era. While I was reading 
this story, tears came to my eyes— tears 
of joy for this family the story was based 
on. As a small boy I didn't know too 
much about prayer, but a couple of 
experiences I will never forget. God 
does listen to heartfelt prayers, even 
though they may be from children. The 
story was very special. 

C. D. Brady 
Slidell, Louisiana 

Conference Issues 

Since I don't get to go to Church much, 
I would like to say how much I have 
enjoyed reading the testimonies and 
messages from David O. McKay and all 
the other leaders of the Church. I espe- 
cially enjoyed the June issue of the Era, 
and hope to get to read about the fall 

Lessie Bridges 
Comer, Georgia 

Era of Youth 

I have greatly enjoyed the articles, and 
you have the most wonderful stories. 
When I read the stories, I use them in 
my daily life. The Era of Youth is fan- 
tastic. My friends in the Church enjoy 
it very much. I wish you could publish 
more stories to teach us through our 
daily life. 

Marianne Hummel 
New Berlin, Wisconsin 

Northernmost Branch? 

We wonder if we are part of the north- 
ernmost branch in the Church. We live 
in Hay River, and attend the branch at 

". . .one of the most 

spiritual feasts 
I have ever read. .".." 

Inuvik, Northwest Territories. The 
branch is composed of about 40 mem- 
bers. There is one member family at 
Coppermine on Coronation Gulf, and one 
lone member at Cambridge Bay on 
Victoria Island. This member may be 
the northernmost member of the Church 

Clifford D. Mader 

Hay River, Northwest Territories, 


Another Buff 

My wife and I would like to congratu- 
late you on the fine magazine that you 
make possible each month. For some- 
time now we have found the Era to be 
informative and useful as well as enter- 
taining. On more than one occasion the 
publication has helped us strengthen our 
faith and deal with some rather diffi- 
cult questions. 

Larry and Gerry Rickertsen 
New Haven, Connecticut 

". . . Out of the Best Books" 

I am a member of a small branch here 
in England, and we share an Improve- 
ment Era. It is a wonderful magazine, 
and everyone longs for their turn to 
come round. I really love the inspir- 
ing talks given by the Prophet, President 
David O. McKay, and the leaders of the 
Church; I feel the spirit in reading them, 
and learn something from each one. The 
short stories I especially love, with their 
beautiful messages. "Seek ye out of the 
best books"— in my opinion the Era is 
certainly one of these. 

Patricia Booth 


Staffordshire, England 
Burn the Book 

The article "Burn the Book" [May], writ- 
ten by Don Vincent di Francesca, first 
Italian convert to be baptized on the 

Improvement Era 

island of Sicily, was an exciting story. An 
item has come to our attention concern- 
ing this story that we feel is of interest to 
Era readers. The original manuscript for 
the article was submitted by Ortho R. 
Fairbanks, sculptor at the Church Col- 
lege of Hawaii, who had spent several 
years in Italy, where he met Brother di 

Before publication of the article, we 
received the following letter from Brother 
Fairbanks: "Enclosed is a check for $50, 
which The Improvement Era sent to me 
for submitting to them the story of the 
conversion of Brother Don Vincent di 
Francesca, When I submitted the story, 
it was in hopes the money could go to 
him. He died, however, before the 
story was printed. I don't feel right in 
accepting the money, and would like to 
send this Di Francesca fund to the 
Italian Mission to be used to perpetuate 
his name or however you see fit." 

What would be a fitting memorial to 
Brother di Francesca? How would he 
want the money used? How could the 
fund help provide for the spiritual 
betterment of the Saints he loved so 

Well, the month of March marked the 
first issue of La Stella, the Church Uni- 
fied Magazine in the Italian language. 
It constituted the first opportunity for the 
Italian Saints to read the words of the 
Prophet and the General Authorities and 
to learn about the beautiful organiza- 
tions and programs of the Church. A 
big initial Stella drive was in process at 
the time the Di Francesca fund was re- 
ceived. Suddenly the answer to the Di 
Francesca fund question came. 

The branch president of the Palermo 
Branch, Elder Kent L. Walgren, wrote 
to this office explaining that literallv 
none of the members in Palermo could 
afford the amount necessary for a Stella 

The perfect way to perpetuate his 
name suddenly became obvious. In 
March there were 29 members in the 
Palermo Branch, and so each active fam- 
ily of the branch received a one-year 
subscription forLa Stella in the name of 
Don Vincent di Francesca. Everyone 
felt that this was a most fitting token- 
to bring the words of modern prophets 
to Brother di Francesca's own people in 
their native tongue. 

R. Brent Bentley 
Italian Mission 
Information Coordinator 

"Two Converts Look . . ." 

An almost unbearable warmth welled up 
inside me as I read the beautiful story 
"Two Converts Look at the Church" 
[July]. I, too, am a convert; and after 
I had lived in a convent for 13 years, 
two years of which I was a Catholic 
nun, it was with indescribable joy that 
I found the true Church. The magnifi- 
cent ending to this beautiful story was 
Brother Pruyn's remark, "We are also 
glad we are converts: we have seen and 
experienced how very little the other 
side has to offer," I agree wholeheart- 
edly, with tears in my eyes and a testi- 
mony in my heart. 

Mrs. Virginia Posselt 
Portland, Oregon 

October 1968 

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The Church 
Moves On 

July 1968 

An enthusiastic audience of 
4,000 attended this evening's 

Tabernacle Choir concert at HemisFair 

'68 in San Antonio, Texas. 

President and Mrs. David 0. 
0. McKay were seated in one of 
the automobiles that led the annual 
Days of '47 parade in Salt Lake City at 
nine this morning. Earlier President 
Hartman Rector, Jr., of the First Coun- 
cil of the Seventy addressed the 
traditional sunrise services at Lindsay 

After breakfasting with servicemen 
at Lackland Air Force Base, the Taber- 
nacle Choir presented a concert in the 
base's outdoor amphitheater to approxi- 
mately 10,000 of the 18,000 airmen 
stationed there. This afternoon the 
choir sang a brief concert in front of 
the U. S. Pavilion at HemisFair. At the 
same time nearly three hundred LDS 
children marched in a delightful Pioneer 
Day parade. This evening the choir 
gave their final concert before an en- 
thusiastic audience in the HemisFair 

Both Utah senators this week had 
addressed the U. S. Senate eulogizing 

the pioneers. Senator Wallace F. Ben- 
nett said: "The vanguard group of 
pioneers who entered the valley in 
1847 came by oxcart and on foot to 
escape religious persecution in the 
Middle West. Today, the stubborn 
desert they faced in Utah has in reality 
been tamed through sweat and dogged 
determination." Noting that his own 
grandparents trekked across the plains, 
Senator Frank E. Moss said the Utah 
holiday "is celebrated by Mormons and 
non-Mormons alike, because of the im- 
portance of the day to Utah history." 

In Mexico City, the Tabernacle 
Choir presented the first of two 
concerts before an appreciative audi- 
ence at the Palace of Fine Arts. 

The two-day 1968 all-Church golf 
tournament opened at the Alpine 
Country Club, American Fork, Utah. 

Arnold Ferrin of Ogden, Utah, 
won the all-Church golf tourna- 
ment. Jeff Ellis, Seattle, Washington, 
won the junior title. 

An artistically impressive concert by 
the Tabernacle Choir at Mexico City's 
Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) 
brought a standing ovation from the 

The First Presidency announced 
the appointment of Heber G. 
Jensen as president of the Alberta 
Temple at Cardston. President Jensen 
is serving presently as president of the 
New Zealand Temple. 

The appointments of 0. Preston 
Robinson, Gerald G. Allen, Rex A. Wad- 
ham, Kenneth L Neal, and Gary Q. 
Jorgensen to the general board of the 
Deseret Sunday School Union were 

The Mormon Pioneer Trail and the 
Mormon Battalion Route are two of 14 
trails included in legislation by the 
House of Representatives authorizing a 
national system of historic trails across 
the nation, Congressman Lawrence J. 
Burton of Utah announced. 

Improvement Era 

After singing . at dedication cere- 
monies of buildings at the LDS El 
Centro Escolar Benemerito de las 
Americas in Mexico City, members of 
the Tabernacle Choir returned to Salt 
Lake City by chartered jet liners. 

r,- The first performance of this 
year's America's Witness for 
Christ, the Palmyra Pageant, was pre- 
sented to an appreciative audience at 
the Hill Cumorah in upstate New York. 

August 1968 

The auditing of every member's 
certificate of membership by 
bishops and ward clerks was begun. 
It is expected that the Herculean task 
will be completed by March 7, 1969, 
enabling the records to be brought into 
an automated program by the Pre- 
siding Bishopric. 

The appointment of Elder Boyd 
K. Packer, Assistant to the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve, as the managing 
director of the Home Teaching Commit- 
tee was announced. In this position he 
succeeds President Alvin R. Dyer of the 
First Presidency. 

The appointment of President Loren 
C. Dunn of the First Council of the 
Seventy to serve on the Missionary 
Committee was announced. 

Ground was broken today for a half- 
million dollar visitor's center in Inde- 
pendence, Missouri, near the site that 
the Prophet Joseph Smith designated 
for a temple in 1831. 

The appointments of Bryan L. Bunker 
and Edward H. Sorensen as counselors 
to President O. Leslie Stone of the Salt 
Lake Temple were announced. 

The week-long season of presenta- 
tion of America's Witness for Christ 
concluded this evening at the Hill 
Cumorah. In the opinion of many, it 
was "indeed the best ever." Among the 
General Authorities who were present 
at some of the performances were 
Elders Mark E. Petersen and Richard L. 
Evans of the Council of the Twelve 
and Elder Marion D. Hanks, Assistant 
to the Council of the Twelve. 

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October 1968 



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• Ancient Temples and Their 
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• Other pertinent articles on dis- 
tinctive features of "Mormon- 

Order from 

All missionaries and other per- 
sonnel of the Church are re- 
ported safe after the recent earthquake 
in the Philippines. 

Missionaries, members, and 
Church property were all re- 
ported safe from the effects of the 
recent Mexican earthquake. 

The appointment of T. Max 
Fortie to the general board of 
the Deseret Sunday School Union was 

The appointments of Owen L Archi- 
bald and J. Golden Snow as counselors 
to President Heber G. Jensen of the 
Alberta Temple were announced. 

The First Presidency repeated 
their announcement that chapels 
and other buildings of the Church 
should not be used for political meet- 
ings or rallies. While members of the 
Church are free to engage in and 
become involved in political campaigns, 
they should not use Church-owned 
facilities, nor should members ask 
those in positions of authority for the 
use of such facilities. The First Presi- 
dency also cautioned against using 
political candidates as sacrament meet- 
ing speakers. 

The reappointment of Mrs. Mar- 
vel M. Young to the general 

board of the Primary Association was 

The appointments of Mrs. Luella 

Wheeler Finlinson and Mrs. Norma B. 

Ashton to the general board of the 

Relief Society were announced. 

The appointment of Elder Henry 
D. Taylor, Assistant to the 
Council of the Twelve, as vice-chairman 
of the Adult Correlation Committee was 

The appointments of Gerald G. 
Smith and Keith E. Garner as Regional 
Representatives of the Council of the 
Twelve were announced. Elder Smith's 
call is to the Spanish Fork (Utah) 
region, succeeding his late brother, 
Stanford G. Smith. 

Improvement Era 

These Times 


The Racial 



in America 

By G. Homer Durham 

President, Arizona State University 

There was a time in some 
American towns when 
people could stand apart 
from the compelling tasks 
and issues of race relations. That 
time may still exist for a few, in a 
few places, perhaps some northern 
rural community or other place 
"back home." But such places, if 
any, are very, very few. Our sons, 
daughters, grandchildren, and 
those beyond live in Detroit, in 
Washington, Atlanta, Los Angeles, 
Boston, Chicago, and elsewhere. 

We cannot be "saved" without 
them, nor they without us. They 
cannot stand apart from the issue. 
Brookline cannot stand apart from 
Roxbury, Beverly Hills from Watts, 
nor Chevy Chase from Washington, 

We are more than ever one 
nation, under God, indivisible. But 
liberty and justice for all are still 
lacking. This is the special feel- 
ing of many underprivileged people 
in our society, including a large 
segment of our black citizens. 

October 1968 





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The racial revolution in America derives from 
the fact that all men are children of God. 

All men are children of God. The 
racial revolution in America, after 
all is said and done, derives from 
this fact. Each human being has 
inborn tendencies and acquired 
aspirations. Conspirators and 
evangelists may play upon these 
aspirations, but the child of God 
remains. For good or evil, he is a 
child of God. 

In America, human beings are 
under heavy persuasion and 
stimuli to seek material self- 
improvement. Inducements to 
seek material comforts are never- 
ceasing. An old comic strip, 
"Keeping Up With the Joneses," 
long ago depicted this phase of 
Americana. Modern advertising 
and mass media emphasize it. 

The glorification of constitu- 
tional freedoms, the powerful 
winds of democracy, and the 
voices of mass communication in 
America are so persistent and con- 
tinuous that all hear, see, or 
imagine "a better world." The 
disadvantaged people, including 
the Negro, cannot but hear and be 
moved to resentment. Their exist- 
ing conditions, as many approach 
adulthood, offer little hope. 

Speaking of the Negroes, only in 
recent years have qualified black 
student-athletes found acceptabil- 
ity in otherwise "white" public 
colleges and universities of Amer- 
ica. But their presence now, on 
almost every major college playing 
field, represents the new gen- 

"Land where my fathers died" 
still refers to Europe for many 
Americans. There are white 
American families that go back 
only one or two generations in 
this country. Others reach back 
three, four, five, or more genera- 

tions. My ancestors, for example, 
except for the seventeenth century 
Scovils of Connecticut, came to 
this country since 1840. But 
nearly all the American Negroes 
descend from individuals who 
came as early as 1612, and not 
later, generally, than 1818. Cris- 
pus Attucks, a Negro, was killed 
in the "Boston Massacre" in 1774, 
50 years before my ancestor, 
Thomas Durham, patriarch of the 
Parowan Stake, was born in Old- 
ham, England. Green Flake, Oscar 
Crosby, and Hark Lay, black Utah 
pioneers in the first company of 
1847, arrived in the Salt Lake 
Valley several years before my an- 
cestor L. N. Scovil brought his 
companies, immigrants who had 
landed at New Orleans, west 
across the plains to Utah. Hark 
Lay, Oscar Crosby, Green Flake, 
their descendants, and their an- 
cestors must have heard some- 
thing about "We hold these truths 
to be self-evident," and "Our 
Father which art in heaven." These 
doctrines and the aspirations that 
go with them must have moved 
them, as others have been moved. 
Today, urban Americans are 
caught up in a great civil and so- 
cial upheaval. The presence of 
colored faces, black, yellow, or 
brown, in any classroom or audi- 
ence, observed by many leaders of 
this generation, denotes important 
current development toward fuller 
realization of the ideals of citizen- 
ship, of the ideals of the father- 
hood of God and the brotherhood 
of man. Segregation and dis- 
crimination, as abstract thought 
processes in chemistry, may well 
be natural and intelligent. But 
segregation and discrimination in 
society, on the basis purely of 

race, and without reference to any 
other thing, are, by majority con- 
sent of today's congresses, by 
three amendments to the Consti- 
tution of the United States, and by 
a century of legislative effort since 
those amendments, immoral and 

The nation's journals express 
the view that our conscience is the 
prime asset in extending the hand 
of help and uplift to the under- 
privileged of all races. What can 
I do? The voice of conscience has 
asked this question in America for 
decades. Today it is being an- 
swered not only by Congress, but 
also by the nation's business 

I have recently sat in meetings 
with the business leadership of the 
Phoenix area and have seen that 
much qan be done. The National 
Alliance of Businessmen, headed 
by Henry Ford II and Leo Beebe, 
executive vice president of Ford 
Motor Company, has gone to work 
this year in the largest American 
communities to find jobs for dis- 
advantaged people. Their efforts 
may represent one of the more 
important ventures of this decade. 
In the Phoenix area, the business 
leaders placed 1,600 disadvan- 
taged youths in summer jobs by 
June 15, with 1,000 permanent 
jobs also provided for the unem- 
ployed "hard-core" adults. If the 
labor unions, schools, churches, 
and other private agencies do as 
much and as well in their respec- 
tive fields as these Arizona busi- 
nessmen (and their counterparts 
in the 50 largest cities), much 
good will have been launched. 

The average business leader 
knows that a job is the foundation 
of self-respect. The firms cooper- 
ating with the National Alliance of 
Businessmen know that most of 
the hard-core unemployed are un- 
skilled, unschooled, and have 
petty or even more serious criminal 
records. Many such records stem 


Improvement Era 

from ignorance, from unwitting in- 
volvement in details of automobile 
and other sales contracts, from 
unmet payments and interest, 
from frustration, from neighbor- 
hood brawls or near brawls, from 
traffic incidents in worn-out ja- 
lopies — and from crimes of vio- 
lence. The businessmen know 
that these individuals will have to 
be encouraged and motivated, 
gently but effectively retrained, 
and encouraged: moreover, that 
they will have to be tolerated and 
understood by their fellow workers, 
and that it is a long, hard road. 
But it has been inspiring to see 
the business community assume 
responsibility and exert such out- 
standing leadership for this revolu- 
tionary work. Executives have been 
loaned to, and are spending full 
time on, the project. New train- 
ing programs have been launched 
— both for the old established, 
existing workers, and for the 
recruits. New personnel policies 
have had to be made in order to 
extend the helping hand of busi- 
ness to those who heretofore sim- 
ply could not compete. 

This is not a weekend task nor 
a summer project. It represents 
a task that will occupy the busi- 
ness community the rest of this 
century and perhaps beyond. 

In these times, the unfinished 
business of the American revolu- 
tion — the quest for "the pursuit 
of happiness" and the fulfillment 
of citizenship — confronts the na- 
tion. The work cannot all be left 
to the government, nor to the 
National Alliance of Businessmen. 
As the lines of an old hymn might 
be paraphrased, there is work for 
all to do, ere the sun goes down. 
And, in this connection, the 
Savior's injunction in Matthew 25 
becomes increasingly poignant: 

"Inasmuch as ye have done it 
unto one of the least of these my 
brethren, ye have done it unto 
me." (Matt. 25:40.) O 

October 1968 




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(reg. $2.00) each $1.60 

(reg. $8.00) Set $6.40 



by J. Reuben Clark, Jr. 
(reg. $3.94) $3.16 



by Covenant Recordings 
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Vo '- * by Clark and Thomas 
(reg. $2.60) $2.08 

Vols. 1, 2, & 3 

by Clark and Thomas 
(reg. $2.95) each $2.36 


25"o or more cash savings 

New & Revised Edition 

by Helen B. Andelin 
(reg. $5.95) $4.46 


by John D. Hawkes 
(reg. $1.95) $1.46 


by Mark E. Petersen 
(reg. $1 .25) Special 750 

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order or portion thereof. (Ex. $1.90 
order 10c; $3.25 order 20c) 
All Foreign Countries send 15c per 
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by Rulon S. Howells 
(reg. $1.50) $1.20 


by Jeannette McKay Morrell 
(reg. $4.95) $3.96 


by Duane S. Crowther 
(reg. $4.50) $3.60 


by Paul H. Dunn 
(reg. $3.00) $2.40 


by Sidney B. Sperry 
(reg. $6.95) $5.91 

TION Vols. 1, 2, & 3 

by Joseph Fielding Smith 
(reg. $3.75) each $3.00 

(reg. $11.25) Set $9.00 

Student Edition Vols. 1, 2, 

3, 4, 5, 6 

by B. H. Roberts 
(reg. $4.50) each $3.60 

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•• Residents of Arizona add 3 percent 
sales tax. 


P. O. Box 2454; 346 S. Hobson St. 
Mesa, Arizona 85201, Tel: 964-7061 

Offer good anywhere in world 


End of an Era 

A group of Church members 

from California, en route to 

Salt Lake City for 


general conference, stopped 

in Las Vegas for 
refreshments. The waitress 


quickly brought coffee 


cups and a percolator to 
the table but was 


informed that the group 

didn't drink coffee and 

would have milk instead. 

As she went for their order, 

she was heard to say, 

Myrle Phelps, 

"Wow ! Did you ever see so 

Montpelier, Idaho 

many ulcer patients in 

one bunch?" 

"Yes," said the personnel 
manager to the job applicant, 
"what we're after is a man 
of vision; a man with drive, 
determination, fire; a man who 
can inspire others; a man who 
can pull our bowling team 
out of last place!" 

Our message is one of a 
living God who speaks now, 
whose voice we have heard, 
whose countenance has shifted 
upon us, and whose words 
we know and teach to others. 

— Elder Bruce R. McConkie 

Sign in a restaurant: "Eat here 
once and you'll never live 
to regret it." 

I have never let my schooling 
interfere with my education. 

—Mark Twain 

Our youths love luxury. They 
have bad manners, contempt for 
authority; they show disrespect for 
their elders, and love to chatter 
in place of exercise. Children are 
now tyrants, not the servants of their 
households. They no longer 
rise when their elders enter the 
room. They contradict their 
parents, chatter before company, 
gobble up their food, and tyrannize 
their teachers. 
— Socrates, 400 B.C. 

I've never quite been able to 

understand the explanation 

of the origin and existence of the 

halo — and yet it isn't because 

it is over my head. 

— T. Kirkwood Collins 

They laughed when I sat 
down to play the piano with my 
hands tied behind my back. 
They didn't know I played 
by ear! 

Wife: Don't you think it's about 
time we took Junior to the zoo? 
Husband: Why? If they want 
him bad enough, they'll come 
after him. 

Our son, who had been 
longing to attend Primary but who 
wasn't yet old enough, heard 
the announcement on 
television of a state primary 
election and exclaimed, 
"Oh, boy! Primary on TV!" 
—Sheila M. Stewart, Snowflake, Arizona 

My interest is in the future, 
because I am going to spend the 
rest of my life there. 

— Charles Franklin Kettering, 
American inventor 

Calamities are of two kinds: 
misfortune to ourselves, 
and good fortune to others. 
— Ambrose Bierce 

"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences that relate to the Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 


Improvement Era 

Read These Results 

see how the 

Kathryn Beich Plan Pays Off! 

Church Makes $3500.00 

"Used the profit from Kathryn Beich 
Candy sale to provide laboratory equip- 
ment for our foreign mission." 


And they do it every year with these fine 
candies! Money buys Christmas baskets 
of food for the needy. 

Boys Earn $2008 in 42 Days 
For New Camping Equipment! 

This Chicago area youth group has sold 
over $12,000 of candy in the past three 
years! "Customers are waiting for us . . ." 
is the reason. 

"New hospital wing was great, but the old 
lobby was out-of-place. Your candy gave 
us $10,000 to remodel everything . . . even 
enough for a color television!" 

"We Learned The Hard Way . . ." 

"We have sold your candy for years to 
finance trips to fairs and football games. 
But last Fall a fast talking salesman 
sold us another candy . . . with prizes 
and supposedly more profit . . . and we 
fell flat. Your Kathryn Beich quality, 
variety and value was missing. People 
who used to buy a case of Katydids, 
etc., grudgingly bought one box. We 
had to return half the shipment. That's 
learning the hard way your plan is best. 
Please rush this 200 case order or we'll 
miss our Expo Canada trip and be in 
big trouble with our youngsters." 

Grateful Little League 

"Made enough to make our team the best- 
equipped, best-dressed in the conference 
. . . they are winning more this season, too!" 


"We just have to be a winner in this year's 
contests with $4000 worth of new equip- 
ment . . . thanks to Kathryn Beich." 


"One more dime and we'll have enough 
cash for the volunteer department's new 
truck. Thank you for your help!" 


new band uniforms? More Little 

League equipment? Special 

assistance for your Church or choir? 

For these and any other project, 


NEW Money-Making Book 

Free to your school, church, club 
or other civic organization! 


Earn $50-$5000 Fast and Easy 
with Kathryn Beich Candies! 

This fact-filled guide outlines how to plan and operate a profitable 
money-making project— large or small— at any time of the year and with- 
out risk of your own money. 
This tested plan will also introduce you to the legendary Kathryn Beich 
Candies. Choose from luscious chocolates, fine butter mints, rare toffees, tender 
crumbles— thirteen "Gift Quality" candies priced from 50^— including three new 
candies offered for the first time! 

Millions of people have bought these confections to support thousands of dif- 
ferent projects. For example, an Indiana Boy's Club made $1806— sold first order in 
two days! Excellent service helped Denver medical club raise over $500 
for research! Here's why it is so easy: We send the candy you need, /> * ,\ 
enough to raise $50to $5000 or more, and even pay shipping costs. Pay % M A" S NTE!? epir ^? 
after you finish your sale. Take up to 60 days if you want. Write today! **'»'»» »™«°'° c0 *' 

Rus h_ Cou po n R>r FREE Book I et 

(pronounced "Bike") 

Dept. 36P4, Bloomington, III. 61701 
□ Send Free guide and complete details. 






(Continental U.S.A. 


Second Class Postage Paid 
at Salt Lake City, Utah 

Making the Family Life the Good Life ... a new baby means new 

financial responsibilities ... the challenge that every father faces; providing for 
his loved ones now and in the future. Through their valued council, highly train- 
ed Beneficial Life agents help to assure a continu- "QT^T^FTTPTAT TTPP 
ance of "the good life" for thousands of families. ^manee (S^^man% 

r V 

Virgil H. Smith, Pres. \^$^/ Salt Lake City, Utah